Background reading material by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. for Year 2 Semester 1 PPSD session on 11th October 2006


Physical activity (any movement of the musculo-skeletal system) covers physical exercise (physical activity undertaken for the specific purpose of improving fitness, promotion of health, or prevention of disease). Unlike ancient humans who were physically active in hunting and agriculture, modern humans need to exercise because machines do most of the hard physical work needed for survival. Physical exercise increases muscle and joint strength and flexibility, increases physical fitness, decreases body lipids, enhances the efficiency and endurance of the cardio-respiratory system, and lowers mortality and morbidity from chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and colon cancer.


The risks of physical exercise in the form of injury are generally outweighed by the benefits. Being physically active has many religious, social benefits, and psychological benefits. It is best to be physically active while engaged in productive work. Physical activity is highly recommended for its many benefits (Physiological, health, and recreational). It is obligatory when it is required as part of disease treatment or preparation for self-defense.


Participative sports is preferred over spectator sports. Sports activity involving show of cruelty, high risk for participants or spectators, or gambling is discouraged. Anabolic steroids used to increase the size and strength of muscles are discouraged.



Bipedal walking is necessary for a sophisticated human civilization. It can be for work and employment, seeking knowledge, physical fitness, recreation, or social visits.


Running is for recreation and physical fitness.


Sitting serves the purposes of resting, relaxing muscle tension, learning, and meditation. The first-comer has priority in sitting and cannot be forced from his seat.


Standing is preparation for walking that helps venous return by muscle pumping. The human upright posture is a bounty from the Creator that enables humans to maintain stationary equilibrium and dynamic equilibrium against forces such as gravity. It is maintained by muscular stretch reflexes to counteract the force of gravity under sophisticated central nervous system coordination. Prolonged standing can cause postural hypotension due to venous pooling of blood in the lower extremity. Standing up is allowed for showing respect.



Athletics refers to competitive activities involving walking, jumping, or throwing. Swimming exercises the whole body with both upper and lower limbs. Armed martial arts are archery, spearmanship, and swordsmanship. Unarmed martial arts include kung fu, judo, karate, and tae kwondo. Horse riding is a sport of endurance from long periods of training for both the horse and the rider. Cock fighting, falconry, hunting for pleasure are offensive. Ball games include: soccer, baseball, basketball, tennis, and golf are better as participative sports than spectator sports.



Boxing and wrestling are violent sports. Motor vehicle racing is risky. There are other adventurous sports that are risky.

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr October 2006