Background reading material for Year 2 Semester 1 PPSD session on October 3, 2006
by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr.
Purposes of public speaking
Public speaking has several purposes. It informs, entertains, inspires, convinces, motivates,
teaches, and trains.
Elements of public speaking
Public speaking involves the speaker, the message, the delivery, and listeners.
The speaker must have integrity, knowledge, a positive attitude, sensitivity to the audience
and the situation, oral skills, self-confidence, self-control, good preparation, energy, sincerity, and credibility (based
on physical appearance, posture, gestures, movements, and voice quality).
The message of a successful speech is short, simple, sincere, related to the audience,
well prepared, based on knowledge of the subject, innovative, and creative. The topic is narrowed to 2-3 points. The introduction
is a concise overview that raises interest and expectations. The body of the speech consists of main points as well as links
and transitions to ensure a smooth flow. The conclusion summarizes key ideas, gives a sense of completeness, and appeals to
The language must be clear and appropriate for the topic, situation, and audience. Rehearsing
a speech increases the speaker's confidence. The methods of delivery are from memory, by reading manuscript, ex-tempore, and
impromptu. Retention is increased by audio-visuals, repetition, periods of silence, audience participation, short and simple
speeches, examples and stories, acronyms, memorable quotes, sincerity, appropriate body language and emotion.
Problems from the audience are heckling, hostility, inattention, and challenges
by experts. The speaker must anticipate questions and prepare for them. He must empathize with the questioner and show he