The paper describes
an Islamic Input into the medical curriculum needed to train doctors who will work in Islamic hospitals and Islamic faculties
of medicine whose number is expected to grow phenomenally in the next 20 years.
1.0 FUTURISTIC PERSPECTIVE
The paper starts
from the assertion that Islamic medical practice will in the next 20 years grow and reach or even the exceed the achievements
of Islamic banking. The Islamic hospitals and clinics that will be established will need medical professionals trained to
practice medicine according to the Qur’an, sunnat, and the purposes of the Law, maqasid
al shari’at. Medical schools counted in the tens at the moment have already changed their curricula to have an Islamic
input. In another 10 years the number of such schools is expected to treble or quadruple and in 20 years from now Islamic
medical practice will have become so well established that, like Islamic banking today, it will have an impact even in non-Muslim
countries and hospitals. It is therefore very important that we work quickly and cooperatively to develop curricula for the
Islamic input in medical education.
2.0 VISION OF THE ISLAMIC INPUT CURRICULUM
2.1 The 2 visions of the Islamic Input Curriculum are: Islamization of medicine, islamiyyat al tibb, and medical jurisprudence, fiqh tibbi.
2.2 Islamization of medicine, islamiyyat al tibb, will not involve changes in the procedures or therapies of modern scientific medicine. Its aim will be reforming
the underlying paradigms, concepts, and beliefs associated with medicine to conform to the tenets of aqidat al tauhid. A good example is the concept that cure is from Allay and that the physician is just an agent
of Allah’s will. Another example is the concept that medical treatment aims at improving the quality of remaining life
until the pre-determined time of death and that medicine cannot postpone or abolish death.
2.3 Medical jurisprudence, fiqh tibbi, provides the legal and ethical
framework for medical practice based on the teaching of the Law. Islamic medical jurisprudence deals with application of Islamic
legal obligations in cases of illness. It also presents a view of medical ethics based on the Qur’an and sunnat as an
alternative to the European ethical theories and principles.
3.0 CONTENTS OF THE CURRICULUM
3.1 The following
are 6 major content areas of the curriculum. Each faculty of medicine can choose which areas to emphasize depending on the
background Islamic knowledge and experience of its students. The curriculum sources are the Qur’an, sunnat, and Muslim
intellectual and cultural heritage.
3.2 Asaasiyyaat (fundamentals): This section covers the basics of the
Islamic creed, ‘aqidat al Islam, Islamic Law, shari’at, and the Islamic concept of knowledge, ‘ilm. These
three provide the conceptual background to further knowledge acquisition.
3.3 Fiqh al taariikh (history): This section provides a historical
background without which the present cannot be understood properly. It covers khalq
al kawn (creation of the universe), khalq al insan (creation of the human);
taarikh al umam (world history), taarikh
al ummat (Muslim history), and the concepts of reform (islaah) and renewal
3.4 Fiqh al ‘uluum al tibbiyat (medical sciences): This section
demonstrates the miracle of the creation of the human body (mu’ujizat al jism)
by discussing the following aspects of human anatomy and physiology: perfection, optimality, coordination, equilibrium, and
purposeness. The section also discusses issues of fiqh tibbi (medical jurisprudence)
related to the normal physiology of reproduction, nutrition, personal and environmental hygiene, sleep, rest and activity.
3.5 Fiqh al tibaabat (clinical sciences): This section covers akhlaaq al tibaabat (medical law and medical ethics); fiqh al amraadh (jurisprudence of illness covering its impact
on religious and social obligations); and fiqh al mustajiddaat (ethico-legal issues
of modern medical technology such as artificial reproduction, transplantation, genetic engineering, cosmetic surgery, cloning
3.6 Fiqh al jama’at (the community): This section discusses social
factors that impact on health. It covers social institutions: bayt (the family),
masjid (mosque), shuura (mutual consultation),
takaful (social mutual self-help), and maal
(economic system). The section also community transactions: mu’amalat madaniyyat
(civil transactions such as marriage, divorce, inheritance), mu’amalaat maaliyyat
(financial transactions), and mu’amalaat qadhaiyyat (judicial transactions).
3.7 Fiqh al qiyaadat (leadership): This section provides the medical
student with the skills he will lead for leadership (qiyadat) and management (idaarat) as a leader of a health care team. It also covers many aspects of self-development
(takwiin al fard) such as developing self confidence, self esteem, self reliance,
and continuing Islamic education.
4.0 METHODOLOGY OF THE CURRICULUMIntegration is the basic philosophy of the curriculum. The same teacher of
medical sciences is also the teacher of the Islamic input. He teaches the Islamic input in the same session as the relevant
medical topic. Examinations and practical activities all incorporate the Islamic element. The whole culture and environment
in the faculty is Islamic. Medical lecturers will have to take a part-time diploma in Islamic Studies to enable them integrate
medical and Islamic perspectives in their teaching