BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EMPIRICAL METHODOLOGY
is basing knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes on practical experience of the sense organs. Exclusive empiricism thus defined
rejects knowledge from intuition, revelation, conjecture, and reasoning. Absolute empiricism denies existence of a priori
USE OF HYPOTHESES IN THE EMPIRICAL METHODOLOGY
investigation starts with hypothesis formulation. The hypotheses are tested by empirical observation and deductions/inductions
STRENGTH OF THE EMPIRICAL
major strength of the empirical methodology is that it enables rapid growth of knowledge.
IN THE USE OF THE EMPIRICAL METHODOLOGY
Biases due to a priori assumptions: A priori assertions or non-assertions, (assertions
by default), bias the selection of fields/issues of investigation, formulation of hypotheses, selection of hypotheses for
testing, reporting of data, interpretation of data, and use of information.
Limitations of observation by human senses: Empirical
knowledge is relativistic and probabilistic. Science can be too arrogant in stating its conclusions as established facts when
the observations on which they are based may be wrong. Empiricism depends on human senses. Human senses are limited in their
observation and can be deceived; this failure is not cured by use of instruments because they are aids and extensions of the
basic human senses. Both empiricists, those who assert that empirical experience is a source of knowledge, and rationalists,
those who assert that human reason is source of knowledge, agree that there is no source of knowledge outside the human.
Limitations of the human intellect: Human intellect
is necessary for interpretation and understanding of empirical observations. This intellect has limitations and there are
matters like the human himself that lie outside its reach. A human cannot understand himself fully. There are transgressions
in the use of reason that lead to false results. This occurs when reason is employed in areas that are exclusive for revelation.