1.0 BASIC SKILLS
1.1 GETTING KNOWLEDGE
The mind must be trained to observe, analyze, think and act in a scientific manner. Blind following
is condemned. Knowledge should be spread. Ignorance spreads when knowledge is lifted.
Knowledge removes blind following. Knowledge is acquired by study. Humans were ordained to read. Knowledge is so important
that migration in its search is encouraged. Travel in search of knowledge is encouraged. Severe punishment is reserved for
those who know and hide their knowledge from others. There is punishment for speaking without knowledge. Knowledge by itself
is not useful unless it is associated with work
Understanding is deeper than knowing.
It is possible but not desirable to know without understanding. Understanding is not possible without knowing.
Thinking is very important in science. Thinking can lead to new knowledge or to deeper understanding
or appreciation of existing knowledge. Thinking by observing the environment around us: living and non-living things.
TheFreedom of thought and freedom of belief are necessary for thought to flourish.
2.0 DESCRIPTIVE KNOWLEDGE
2.1 DESCRIPTION OF THINGS IN THE ENVIRONMENT
The beginning of scientific development is description of what we see in the environment
around us. Some of these descriptions appear simple but they are the beginning of scientific inquiry. Mountains are elevated,
stable, but sometimes mobile. Barriers exist between waters of different oceans. Iron is beneficial to humans. The wind is
a necessity for life. It raises clouds and sends them to cause rain. It pushes boats on water. Plants are described as of
different kinds. The atmosphere is described as layers. Honey is a cure of disease. Water is described as the source of life.
2.2 DESCRIPTION OF CHANGES and MOTION
Around us we seen phenomena of motion of the the earth, the boats, the sun, the moon, the
water, and of the wind.
2.3 DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES
Many processes around us can be described such as iron making, boat-building, growth of
plants and animals.
2.4 DESCRIPTION OF THE CONSTANT LAWS OF NATURE
The laws of nature are fixed and stable. The laws operate in various situations: in change,
reproduction, parity, in the past and in the present. Order is one of the most important laws of nature.
2.5 RECORDING OF OBSERVATIONS
For orderly scientific growth, observations must be recorded carefully.
3.0 ANALYTIC KNOWLEDGE
3.1 EVIDENCE-BASED KNOWLEDGE AND ACTION
Knowledge must be evidence-based. Certain validity conditions must be fulfilled before
evidence is accepted. False evidence is rejected. Knowledge not based on evidence such as sorcery is rejected. Speculation
or conjecture are rejected because they are the most untruthful discourse not being evidence-based. Speculative or hypothetical
thinking not related to reality is condemned. Human thought is a tool and not an end in itself. It operates on the
basis of empirical observations and revelation, both objective sources of information. Thought that is not based on an empirical
basis or revelation is speculative and leads to wrong conclusions. Care should be taken in giving opinions on matters for
which there is no evidence.
Objectivity is enjoined in measurements. Subjective feelings should not be followed. Personal
whims should not be followed because they lead to falsehood.
3.3 DRAWING CONCLUSIONS FROM EMPIRICAL OBSERVATION
Reliance of observation and not speculation is emphasized. Humans should observe the signs
of the Creator in the universe and in humans. They however should be aware that human senses have limitations.
3.4 RATIONAL THINKING and LOGICAL OPERATIONS
Assertions based on reason have rational thinking behind them. Logical operations related
to rational thinking can be identified.
3.5 PRUDENCE IN REACHING CONCLUSIONS
Even with the most rigorous empirical observation, care must be taken in reaching conclusions
because errors are always possible.
4.0 THE ETQUETTE OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOURSE
4.1 ASKING QUESTIONS
Questions can be for finding out information. Too much speculative questioning on hypothetical
situations is discouraged.
4.2 RESPECTING THE OTHER OPINION
Opposing opinions should be listened to and should be respected. They should never be suppressed.
4.3 ETIQUETTE OF DISCUSSION
Differences on scientific matters can arise and are natural. Discussion and exchange of
views is a necessity for humans. Discussion has its own etiquette. The truth must be revealed. Contradictions must be avoided.
Arrogance is condemned.
The following are attributes of good discussion: objectivity, truthfulness, asking for
evidence, and talking about what you know. Humans have a tendency to purposeless disputation that is frowned upon.
4.4 ABANDONING FALSE PREMISES
If a person gives an opinion on a matter and then receives a correct information or interpretation,
he should give up his previous opinion.
Fear of people should be no reason for not revealing the truth. Deception is condemned.
The truth of any assertion must be checked. Certainty is the basis of knowledge; speculation is not.