1.0 BASIC SKILLS
1.1 GETTING KNOWLEDGE: The mind must be trained
to observe, analyze, think and act in a scientific manner. Blind following is condemned. Knowledge should be spread. Ignorance
spreads when knowledge is lifted. Knowledge removes blind following. Knowledge
is acquired by study. Humans were ordained to read. Knowledge is so important that migration in its search is encouraged.
Travel in search of knowledge is encouraged. Severe punishment is reserved for those who know and hide their knowledge from
others. There is punishment for speaking without knowledge. Knowledge by itself is not useful unless it is associated with
1.2 UNDERSTANDING: Understanding
is deeper than knowing. It is possible but not desirable to know without understanding.
Understanding is not possible without knowing.
1.3 THINKING: Thinking is very important in science. Thinking
can lead to new knowledge or to deeper understanding or appreciation of existing knowledge. Thinking by observing the
environment around us: living and non-living things. TheFreedom of thought and freedom of belief are necessary for
thought to flourish.
2.0 DESCRIPTIVE KNOWLEDGE
2.1 DESCRIPTION OF THINGS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: The beginning
of scientific development is description of what we see in the environment around us. Some of these descriptions appear simple
but they are the beginning of scientific inquiry. Mountains are elevated, stable, but sometimes mobile. Barriers exist between
waters of different oceans. Iron is beneficial to humans. The wind is a necessity for life. It raises clouds and sends them
to cause rain. It pushes boats on water. Plants are described as of different kinds. The atmosphere is described as layers.
Honey is a cure of disease. Water is described as the source of life.
2.2 DESCRIPTION OF CHANGES and MOTION: Around us we seen
phenomena of motion of the earth, the boats, the sun, the moon, the water, and of the wind.
2.3 DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES: Many processes around us can
be described such as iron making, boat-building, growth of plants and animals.
2.4 DESCRIPTION OF THE CONSTANT LAWS OF NATURE: The laws
of nature are fixed and stable. The laws operate in various situations: in change, reproduction, parity, in the past and in
the present. Order is one of the most important laws of nature.
2.5 RECORDING OF OBSERVATIONS: For orderly scientific growth,
observations must be recorded carefully.
3.0 ANALYTIC KNOWLEDGE
3.1 EVIDENCE-BASED KNOWLEDGE AND ACTION: Knowledge must be
evidence-based. Certain validity conditions must be fulfilled before evidence is accepted. False evidence is rejected. Knowledge
not based on evidence such as sorcery is rejected. Speculation or conjecture are rejected because they are the most untruthful
discourse not being evidence-based. Speculative or hypothetical thinking not related to reality is condemned. Human
thought is a tool and not an end in itself. It operates on the basis of empirical observations and revelation, both objective
sources of information. Thought that is not based on an empirical basis or revelation is speculative and leads to wrong conclusions.
Care should be taken in giving opinions on matters for which there is no evidence.
3.2 OBJECTIVITY: Objectivity is enjoined in measurements.
Subjective feelings should not be followed. Personal whims should not be followed because they lead to falsehood.
3.3 DRAWING CONCLUSIONS FROM EMPIRICAL OBSERVATION: Reliance
of observation and not speculation is emphasized. Humans should observe the signs of the Creator in the universe and in humans.
They however should be aware that human senses have limitations.
3.4 RATIONAL THINKING and LOGICAL OPERATIONS: Assertions
based on reason have rational thinking behind them. Logical operations related to rational thinking can be identified.
3.5 PRUDENCE IN REACHING CONCLUSIONS: Even with the most
rigorous empirical observation, care must be taken in reaching conclusions because errors are always possible.
4.0 THE ETQUETTE OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOURSE
4.1 ASKING QUESTIONS: Questions can be for finding out information.
Too much speculative questioning on hypothetical situations is discouraged.
4.2 RESPECTING THE OTHER OPINION: Opposing opinions should
be listened to and should be respected. They should never be suppressed.
4.3 ETIQUETTE OF DISCUSSION: Differences on scientific matters
can arise and are natural. Discussion and exchange of views is a necessity for humans. Discussion has its own etiquette. The
truth must be revealed. Contradictions must be avoided. Arrogance is condemned.
The following are attributes of good discussion: objectivity, truthfulness, asking for
evidence, and talking about what you know. Humans have a tendency to purposeless disputation that is frowned upon.
4.4 ABANDONING FALSE PREMISES: If a person gives an opinion
on a matter and then receives a correct information or interpretation, he should give up his previous opinion.
4.5 TRUTH: Fear of people should
be no reason for not revealing the truth. Deception is condemned. The truth of any assertion must be checked. Certainty is the basis of knowledge; speculation is not.