0709-Youths and the Challenges of Revival, Tajdid, And Reform, Islaah

By Professor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. MB ChB (MUK), MPH (Harvard), DrPH (Harvard) Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health University Brunei Darussalam. EM omarkasule@yahoo.com, WEB: http://omarkasule.tripod.com


The revival of the ummat starting in the 14th and continuing into the 15th century of hijra faces internal challenges (education crisis and social crisis) and external challenges (ideological invasion in the form of atheism and polytheism, cultural invasion in the form of globalization, and colonial military invasion and occupation). We will focus in this paper on the internal challenges because they are the more important ones. It was internal weakness that opened the door to the external threats. The external threats can be kept at bay if the internal front is strong. The two pillars of successful revival and reform are educational reform and proper understanding and application of the 5 purposes of the Law, maqasid al shari’at. There are glad tidings from the prophet that the ummat will triumph in the end.



1.1 Manifestations of the crisis:

The ummat is living in an educational and knowledge crisis. There is pervasive ignorance of the religious disciplines, uluum al diin and worldly disciplines, uluum al dunia. There is little respect for scholarship. Wealth and power are considered more important than scholarship. There is neglect of the empirical sciences. There is a dichotomy in the education system: traditional Islamic vs. imported European, uluum al ddiin vs uluum al ddunia. Integration of the 2 systems has failed or has been difficult because it has been mechanical and not conceptual. The process of secularization in education has removed the moral dimension from the education and violated the aim of Islamic education to produce an integrated and perfect individual, insan kaamil. The brain drain from Muslim countries has compounded the educational crisis.


1.2 Ummatic malaise due to the knowledge crises:

Knowledge deficiency and intellectual weakness are the most significant manifestation of ummat’s decadence. The intellectual crisis of the ummat is worsened by copying and using poorly digested alien ideas and concepts. The prophet warned the ummat about the lizard-hole phenomenon in which the ummat in later times would follow its enemies unquestionably like the lizards following one another into a hole. Among the manifestations of the ummatic malaise are deficient ibadat, action deficiency, political weakness, economic dependency, military weakness, dependence in science and technology, and erosion of the Islamic identity in life-style.


1.3 Historical background:

The generation of the Prophet (PBUH) was the best generation. The best teacher met the best students and excellent results were obtained. Companions had excellent knowledge and understanding. Seeds of the current crisis appeared towards the end of the khilafat rashidat. New social and political forces overthrew the khilafat rashidat and the ideals it represented were distorted or abolished. Then the authentic ‘ulama and opinion leaders who remained faithful to the ideals of Islam were marginalized and persecuted. Intellectual stagnation then ensued. The process of secularization of the Muslim state progressed. Widespread ignorance and illiteracy became common. Many non-Islamic ideas and facts without valid proof have found their way into the intellectual and religious heritage of the ummat making the existing intellectual crisis even worse.


1.4 Knowledge, a pre requisite for revival, tajdid:

Reform and revival of the ummat will occur through educational and knowledge reform. Tajdid is a recurring phenomenon in the ummat and is a sign of its health and dynamism. It is a basic characteristic of the ummat that periods of reform/revival alternate with periods of decay and return to jahiliyyat. Tajdid requires knowledge, ideas and action related by the following mathematical equation: tajdid = idea + action. Action without knowledge and guiding ideas will not lead to true change. Ideas without action are not change at all. Tajdid requires and is preceded by a reform in knowledge to provide ideas and motivation on which to build. All successful societal reform starts with change in knowledge. The ideal society cannot be created without a knowledge base. That knowledge base must be correct, relevant, and useful. Successful revival movements throughout Muslim history have always been led by scholars.


1.5 Knowledge: strategy, obligations, and etiquette:

The Muslim ummat is a potential economic and political bloc whose potential is not yet realized. The contemporary tajdid movement has a lot of strengths but also has basic deficiencies that must be corrected. The knowledge and intellectual crises are still a barrier. Reform movements unguided by correct knowledge and understanding will falter and fail or will be deviated from their paths. Social change requires change in attitudes, values, convictions and behavior of a critical mass of the population. Attitudes, values, convictions, and behaviors are determined by the knowledge base. The vision of the knowledge strategy is an upright balanced person who understands the creator, knows his place, his roles, his rights, and his responsibilities in the cosmic order. The mission of the knowledge strategy is conceptual transformation of the education system from kindergarten to post graduate studies to reflect tauhid, positive moral values, objectivity, universality, and serving the larger causes of humanity.



2.1 The calamity of the ummat, balaau al ummat:

The ummat is now experiencing 15 things that the prophet warned would herald catastrophy of the ummat, balau of the ummat: 1. Wealth circulates in a small closed circle, al ghina dawla; 2. Trust is considered rare, al amanat maghnaman; 3. Zakat is considered a burden, al zakat maghraman; 4. Husbands obey their wives; 5. Mothers are mistreated, ‘aqqa ummuhu; 6. A close friend is abandoned, barra sadiiquhu; 7. Fathers treated coldly, jafa abaahu; 8. Noises of dispute in the mosque, irta’at al aswaat fi al masajid, 9. The evil doer becomes the leader of the tribe, saada al qabilat faasiquhum, 10. The leader of the community is the lowest of them morally, wa kaana za’iim al qawm ardhalihim; 11. A man is respected for fear of his evil, ikraam al rajul makhafat sharuhu; 12. Taking intoxicants, shuribat al khumuur; Wearing silk by men, labs al hariir; Music, ittukhidhat al al qayiat wa al ma’azif; Later generations cursing the earlier generations, la’ana aakhir al ummat awaluhum[i]


2.2 Repulsive social conditions, al munaffiraat:

The prophet also described manifestations of frightening social degeneration, munaffiraat, that are signs warning of the approach of the Last Day, ashraat yawm al qiyamat. The end of time will be characterized by ignorance of the religion, spread of zina, drinking of intoxicants, imbalance in the women to men ratio until there are 50 women for 1 man[ii]. Scholars will pass away and ignorant persons will become leaders who will be asked and will answer from ignorance[iii]. People will say ‘la ilaaha illa al llaah’ because they found their forefathers saying it but do not know what it means[iv]. Sexual immorality will become so wide-spread that men and women will no longer have shame of coitus on a public road[v] and will behave like donkeys[vi].  Killing will become common[vii]. People will kill their neighbors, brothers, uncles, and sons of his uncle. The companions asked the prophet what would have happened to people’s minds? The prophet answered that Allah will take away the minds of the people and leave them as people who seem to be after something when they are after nothing’[viii]. Iman will become unstable. A man will wake up a believer and becomes a non-believer in the evening and a believer in the evening will become a non-believer by the next morning selling his iman for goods of the duniya[ix]. Public immorality will become extreme such that the liar is believed, the truthful is disbelieved, the dishonest is trusted, the trustworthy will be considered dishonest, and the stupid will be the spokesmen[x]. Muslims will blindly follow the Yahud and Nasara like lizards follow one another into the lizard hole[xi]. Muslims will be attacked and humiliated by their enemies. When the companions asked whether that will be due to Muslims being few, he replied that the Muslims will be many but will be weak because of their love of the duniya and fear of death[xii]. Greed, materialism, competition, and mutual jealousy will increase[xiii]. Excessive luxury, taraf, will occur with people eating choicy foods and wearing choicy clothes[xiv].  Allah warned that when the duniya is at the height of luxury Allah will send His command and all will be destroyed[xv].



3.1 The concept of Islamization:

Islamization is a process of recasting the corpus of human knowledge to conform with the basic tenets of aqidat al tauhid. The process of Islamization does not call for re-invention of the wheel of knowledge but calls for reform, correction, and re-orientation. It is evolutionary and not revolutionary. It is corrective and reformative. It is the first step in the islamization and reform of the education system as a prelude to islamization and reform of society.


3.2 History of Islamization

The 2-3rd centuries H witnessed a failed effort at Islamization of knowledge. Greek scientific knowledge was transferred to Muslims together with Greek philosophy and ideas that caused confusions in ‘aqiidat. Greek science depended more on philosophical deduction than experimentally-based induction. It discouraged the scientific tarbiyat of the Qur’an which emphasized observation of nature as a basis for conclusions. The recent Islamisation movement towards the close of the 14th century H aimed at de-europeanizing education systems and building an education system based on tauhid.


3.3 Reform of disciplines:

Islamization has to start with reforming the epistemology, methodology, and corpus of knowledge of each discipline. It must be pro-active, academic, methodological, objective, and practical. Its vision is objective, universal, and beneficial knowledge in the context of a harmonious interaction of humans with their physical, social, and spiritual environment. Its practical mission is transformation of the paradigms, methodologies, and uses of disciplines of knowledge to conform to tauhid. Its immediate goals are: (a) de-Europeanizing paradigms of existing disciplines to change them from parochiality to universal objectivity, (b) reconstruction of the paradigms using Islamic universal guidelines, (c) re-classifying disciplines to reflect universal tauhidi values, (d) reforming research methodology to become objective, purposeful, and comprehensive (e) growth of knowledge by research, and (f) inculcating morally correct application of knowledge. The Qur’an gives general principles that establish objectivity and protect against biased research methodology. It creates a world-view that encourages research to extend the frontiers of knowledge and its use for the benefit of the whole universe. Scientists are encouraged to work within these Qur’anic parameters to expand the frontiers of knowledge through research, basic and applied.


3.4 Practical steps / tasks of the reform process:

The first step is a good grounding in Islamic methodological sciences of of usul al fiqh,  ulum al Qur’an, ulum al hadith, and 'uluum al llughat. This is followed by reading the Qur’an and sunnat with understanding of the changing time-space dimensions. This is followed by clarification of basic epistemological issues and relations: wahy and aql, ghaib and shahada, ‘ilm and iman. This is followed by an Islamic critique of basic paradigms, basic assumptions, and basic concepts of various disciplines using criteria of Islamic methodology and Islamic epistemology. Islamic reviews of existing text-books and teaching materials are then undertaken to identify deviations from the tauhidi episteme and the Islamic methodology. The initial output of the Islamization process will be Islamic introductions to disciplines, muqaddimat al ‘uluum, establishing basic Islamic principles and paradigms that determine and regulate the methodology, content, and teaching of disciplines. This parallels Ibn Khaldun’s Introduction to History, muqaddimat presented generalizing and methodological concepts on historical events. Publication and testing of new text-books and other teaching materials is a necessary step towards reform by putting into the hands of teachers and students reformed material. Developing applied knowledge in science and technology from basic knowledge will be the last stage of the reform process. This is because in the end it is science and technology that actually lead to changes in society.



4.1 Historical background

The 5-6th centuries of hijra were a period of new developments in the law. This was a time when the work on the fixed part of the law was completed. It was also a time of much intellectual activity in the ummat as the fall-out from the intellectual impact of Greek ideas continued. Any further developments in the law required opening up new the flexible part of the law which necessitated discussion of the purposes of the law. It was at this time that al Ghazali and his teacher Imaam al Haramain al Juwayni introduced the ideas that underlie the concept of maqasid al shari’at. Pioneers in the development of the theory of Purposes of the Law, maqasid al sharia, were al Juwayni, Ghazzali d. 505 AH, Sheikh al Islam Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728H), Ibn al Qayyim al Jawziyyat (d. 751H), al Shatibi (d 790 AH). Ibn al Qayyim studied from Ibn Taymiyah who in turn studied from al Juwayni. Ghazzali's new theory of the purposes of the law was in the flexible part of the law. It opened up new challenges. His work was extended by Ibn Taymiyat and Ibn al Qayim. The field of the purposes of the law witnessed little development until revived by the Abdalusian Maliki scholar Imaam Abu Ishaq al Shatibi in the 8th century AH who elaborated Ghazzali's theory. Our subsequent discussion of the purposes of the law is from al Shatibi's book al muwafaqaat fi usuul al shariat


4.2 Overview of the concept of maqasid

The following over-view is based on al Shatibi’s writings. Al Ashatibi drew attention to the importance of an over-all instead of a partial approach. He argued that the aim of ijtihad was to discover the purpose of the lawgiver, al shariu, in order to reach a legal ruling, hukm shar’i.


The law was revealed to fulfill specific underlying purposes that will ensure success, falah, in this world and the hereafter. The supreme purpose of the law is to free the human from the grip of his own whims and fancies so that he may be a servant of Allah by choice just as he is without choice, al maqsad al sharei min wadai al shariat ikhraaj al mukallaf min daa'iyat hawaahu hatta yakuuna abdan li laahi ikhtiyaaran kama huwa abdan li laahi idhtiraaran. The law was specifically promulgated for the interests or benefit, masaalih, of the people. The law is on the side of the people and not against them. The law makes human life easier and not more difficult. The law is therefore flexible to help the people. People who make religion difficult, mutashaddidiin fi al ddiin, are misunderstanding the law.


Humans using their reasoning cannot reach the best interests on earth, masalih al duniyawiyyat; they need the Law to give them guidance. The masalih and the harms/evils, mafasid cannot be determined by human whims and fancies. On earth there is no absolute benefit or evil. Every human action involves both. The purpose of the Law is therefore to choose the best equilibrium. The original position is that benefits are permitted, halal, and harms, madhaar, are forbidden, haram. The law alone defines what is a benefit and what is a harm; human intellect and desires or whims are unreliable in this exercise. Human judgment is limited in purely earthly benefits. In both valid and non-valid actions, the basis for legal rulings, hukm, is the maslahat. The law-giver issues injunctions on the basis of which of the two predominates, benefit or harm. If benefit and evil are contradictory, we look for a middle of the way position, al tasaawi, or determining which should predominate, tarjiih. In the hereafter, both good and bad are absolute and are invariant.


The maqasid are permanent, kulliyaat abadiyyat. This is the basis of consistency. They are derived from the original texts, nass, by induction and are therefore definitive, qata’i. Use of the maqasid ensures that the law is protected from being lost, dhia, or being changed, tabdiil. The maqasid are one indivisible whole, kulliyat la tankharim. Exceptions, branches, or parts, juz’iyaat, that are not understandable to the human should not detract us from the holistic, kulliyat, understanding the purposes of the law. Imaam al Shatibi however emphasized that the parts, juz’iyaat, must be preserved if the whole, kulliyaat, are to be maintained. It is a mistake to consider the specifics only while ignoring the overall kulliyat.


The purposes of the law are developed from the texts, nass, by a process of induction, istiqra, and not deduction. They are therefore definitive, qatai, sources of law.


The 1st to 14th centuries witnessed relatively little change in the ummat in the physical sense. However in the 15th century, technological changes have created new and complex problems that require a bird's eye view for solution. It is the maqasid that can provide this bird's eye view and thus lead to appropriate solutions.


There are 5 necessities, al daharuuraat al kahmasat, that are generally referred to as the 5 Purposes of the Law, maqasid al shariat arranged here in order of importance: religion, diin; life, nafs, the mind, 'aql; progeny, nasl; and property, maal. Each purpose has two components: acquisition, tahsil, and maintenance, ibqa. Ibqa in turn has two components: preservation and protection from harm. These 5 necessities are also called al usuul al kulliyat or kulliyat al sharia. The 5 purposes are permanent and are unchangeable, kulliyat abadiya).


4.3 Protection of religion, hifdh al ddiin

Protection of ddiin covers a wide scope of ‘ibadat, aadaat, munakahaat, and mu’amalat. ‘Ibadat involves faith, iman; the 2 testaments, shahadatain; prayer, salat; fasting, siyaam; and pilgrimage, hajj. It is the most important because it involves both duniyat and akhirat. Activities of daily living, ‘aadaat, like food, drink, sleep indirectly contribute to the preservation of diin by making sure humans are in good physical health to undertake activities of physical ‘ibadat. Marriage and family, ensure religion by protection from illegal sexual intercourse. The family transmits and teaches 'aqidat as well as Islamic culture. Transactions, mu'amalaat, involving exchange of goods and services enable mutual reliance in the society and enables all members to get the essentials of life in an easier way than if they had to get everything for themselves. Thus mu'amalat are necessary for life and health without which ibadat is not possible. Criminal laws, jinayaat, protect ddiin in various ways for example laws against apostasy protect religion and laws that forbid spread of evil ideas and practices protect ‘aqidat and morality.


4.4 Protection of life, hifdh al nafs

‘Ibadat like salat leads to inner tranquility, sakiinat, which is necessary for establishment and maintenance of a peaceful society. In ‘aadaat, maintenance of life includes eating, drinking, dress, shelter, medical treatment, and physical exercise. In munakahaat, the reproductive function, a necessity for continuation of human life by making sure that children succeed their parents, is best served in a legal marriage. The law regulating marriage and family life contributes to the biological survival of the human race. Children grow well and are healthy physically and mentally if they are in a family. In mu'amalaat, essential goods and services like food, medical care, and shelter are served by business transactions in which people exchange goods and services. Without these essentials life and health would be jeopardized. In jinayaat, many laws were promulgated to protect life and promote health. The laws on quarantines during epidemics, the isolation of persons with contagious disease, the laws of revenge, qisas, for homicide, laws on physician liability for professional errors and negligence, the punishment for taking alcohol and other intoxicants.


4.5 Protection of progeny, hifdh al nasl

Family life according to the Law ensures issue of progeny and protection of children to grow into adults who will reproduce and continue the human race. In ‘aadaat, good nutrition of young girls ensures that they grow into healthy potential mothers who will bear healthy babies and are at low obstetric risk. Good nutrition in pregnancy ensures optimal intra-uterine fetal growth and development and easier delivery with minimal intra-natal and post-natal complications. All these measures taken together ensure healthy offspring. In munakahaat, maintenance of progeny includes the regulations about marriage, family life, and child upbringing. This purpose has several interpretations. It is wrong to use it to refer to protection of the race because race in Islam is forbidden. It can be referred to protection of honor, ‘irdh. The best interpretation is protection of paternity and preservation of the family. The rules of marriage, divorce, nafaqat, and child upbringing fall under this purpose. The mahr given to the wife on marriage ensures economic independence for her in case of dissolution of the marriage. In mu'amalaat, the laws of inheritance ensure proper transfer of property rights from the parents to their young children so that they have the means to sustain them to grow into adulthood.  In jinayaat, the laws about paternity ensure that biological fathers have the legal and financial responsibility for physical care of their children until they grow up. The laws against illegal sexual relations like zina and liwat ensure that people marry and have children. It is the experience of all human civilizations that the birth rate falls in situations of wide-spread sexual immorality.


4.6 Protection of the mind, hifdh al ‘aql

‘Ibadat leads to calmness, tama'aninat nafsiyat, that is essential for mental health. In ‘aadaat, maintenance of the mind includes avoiding doing or consuming what affects the intellect like alcohol, drugs, and all addictive habits. Poor nutrition leads to neuropathies that affect intellectual function. In munakahaat,  psychological calmness and stability of the family is necessary for mental health of the spouses and the children. Scientific research has shown that children who grow in dysfunctional families have many psychological problems as adults. In mu'amalaat, poor economic conditions and disturbance of normal transactions lead to poverty and need. These contribute a lot to psychological imbalances. In jinayaat, the law provides heavy penalties for false accusations of adultery because of the psychological distress caused to all members of the family.


4.7 Protection of wealth, hifdh al mal

Zakat cleans wealth and protects it. In ‘aadaat, the Law discourages wasteful eating and drinking which lead to poverty. In munakahaat, mahr ensures financial independence of the woman and gives her security. The obligation of nafaqat protects the family from poverty and material want. In mu'amalaat, the regulations about property, trade, and inheritance are for the preservation of property rights. In jinayaat, the punishment for stealing protects property rights



There are events in the akhir zaman that bring cheer to Muslims. Islam will spread far and wide[xvi]. Islam will become dominant even if the polytheists, mushrikiin do not want[xvii]. The prophet predicted Muslim entering Constantinolople[xviii]. Constantinolople was opened by Sultan Muhammad al Fatih in 1453 N and was renamed Islamphol, the city of Islam, later corrupted to Istanbul.  The prophet also predicted that the Roman territories will become Muslim[xix]. The prophet also predicted that the Muslims defeat the Yahud[xx]. The prophet predicted return of the khilafat rashidah when he said that the ummat will go through various political stages: nubuwwat, khilafat rashidat, mulk ‘aadh, mulk jabriyy, and finally khilafat rashidat[xxi]. Also awaited is the Mahdi and the descent of Isa (PBUH) when peace and justice will prevail in the world under the shari’at of Islam.

[i] al durar al suniyyat fi al ajwibat al najdiyyat Volume 7 page 252. ? date


[ii] Inna min ashraat al saa’at an yurufa’u al ‘ilm, wa yadhharu al jahal, wa yafshu al zina, wa yushrabu al khamr, wa yadhihabu al rijaalu wa yabqa al nisa hatta yakuuna li kahmissina imra’at qayyiman waahidan’ (Muslim)


[iii] Mukhtasar Sahih Muslim Hadith No. 1858 Kitaab al ‘Ilm


[iv] silsilat al ahadiith al sahiihat 1:127 No 87


[v]  ‘ wa allathi nafsi bi yadihi, la tafni hadhihi al ummat  hatta yaquuma al rajul ila al mar at fayaftarishuha fi al tariiq fayakuun khiyaaruhum yawmaidhin man yaquul law waarayitaha khalfa hadha al hait. (silsilat al ahadiith al sahiihat 1:789)


[vi] Sahih Muslim 8:197-198


[vii] Bukhari 9:87 Fitan

[viii] hatta yaqtula al rajul jaarahu. Wa yaqtul akhaahu, wa yaqtula ‘ammahu, wa yaqtula ibn ‘ammihi. Qaaluu ya rasuula al llaah wa ma’ana ‘uquulana? Qaala: innahu layanzi’u ‘uquul ahl dhaalik wa yakhluf lahum habaaan min al naas yahsabu aktharuhum annahum ‘ala shay wa laisu ‘ala shay’ silsilat al ahadith al sahiiha: 4:248.


[ix] ‘baadiru bi al a’amaal fitnan ka qita’I al lail al mudhlim yasbahu al rajul muminan wa yamsi kaafiran wa yumisi mumuminan wa yasibahu kaafiran yabii’u diinahu bi ‘aradhi min al duniya’


[x] silsilat al ahadith al sahihat: 4:508 No 1881


[xi] Latatiba’anna sunan man kaana qablakum shibran bi shibri wa dhiraa’an bi dhiraa’in hatta lay dakhaluu juhra dhabbi lataba’atumuuhum. Qulna ya rasul al llaah al yahuud wa al nasaara! Qaala faman?


[xii] Yuushaku al umam al tatadaa’a ‘alaikum kama tatadaa’a al aklat ila qas’atiha faqaala qailu amin qillatin nahnu yawmaifhin? Qaala la bal antum yawmaidhin kathiir wa lakinnakum ghuthaau ka ghuthaai al sail wa liyanza’anna al llaahu min suduri ;aduwwikum al mahaabat minkum wa liyaqdhifanna fi quluubikum al wahan qiila wa ma al wahan? Hubb al duniya wa karaahiyat al mawt’ Ahmad 5:278.


[xiii] Silsilat al ahadiith al sahiihat 4:248


[xiv] Inna min shiraar ummati alladhiina ghadhu bi al na’im, alladhiina yatlibuuna alwaana al ta’an wa alwana al thiyaab yatashaddaquun bi al kalaam’ silsilat al ahadiith al sahihat 4:512 No 1891


[xv] Surat Yunus 24


[xvi] layablughanna hadha al amr ma balagha al layl wa al nahar wamla yaturuku al llaah bayt mudar wa la wabar illa adkhalahu al llaahu hadha al ddiin bi ‘izzi ‘aziiz aw bi dhulli dhaliil ‘izzan yu’izzu bihi al llaah al islam wa dhilla yadhillu bihi al kufr’ silsilat al ahaadiith al sahiihat 1:7


[xvii] taubat:33


[xviii] Abu Qubail reported from Amre bin al Aas: ‘su ila ayyi al madinatain yuftahu awaalan qusantiina aw ruumiyyat? Faqaala madinat hirqal ya’ani qusantiina. silsilat al ahadith al sahiihat 1:8. It was also reported from Abuhuraira that a Muslim army will conquer qusantiina’ Mukhtasar Muslim Bab fi fath qusantiina. Also reported from Abuhuraira ; sami’itum bi madiinat jaanibu minha fi al barr wa jaanibu minha fi al bahr? Qaalu na’am ya rasul al llaah. Qaala rasul al llaah: ‘la taquum al sa’at hatta yanzila al ruum bi al a’imaaq aw bidaabiq fayakhruj lahum jaishu min al madinat…. Fayaftahuuna qusantiina. Mukhtasar Muslim kitaab al fitan.


[xix] It was reported from Abuhiraira that the The prophet said ‘taquum al saa’at wa al ruum akthar al naas .. inna fiihim khisaala arba’a: innahum la arham al naas ‘inda fitnat, wa asra’uhum ifaaqat ‘inda musiibat, wa awshakuhum karat ba’ada farrat, wa kahiruhum li miskin wa yatiim wa dhaif wa jhamisat hasanat jamiilat: wa aman’uhum min dhul al muluuk’ Mukhtasat sahiih Muslim li al mundhiri hadiith No 2026. The ‘ulama interpreted this to mean that the Romans (Europeans) will then have become Muslims because these characteristics are found only in Muslims.


[xx] la taquum al saa’at hatta yuqaatila al muslimuun al yahuud fayaqtukuhum al muslimuun hatta yakhtabi al yahuudi min waraai al hajar wa al shajar fayaquul al hajar wa al shajar ya muslim ya ‘abda al llaah hadha yahuudi khalfi ta’ala faqtuluhu illa al gharqad finahu shajar al yahuud.


[xxi] Silsilat al ahaddith al sahiihat 1:8

ŠProfessor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. September 2007