0708-Characteristics of a Muslim Physician

Paper presented at a Workshop on Integration of Islamic Values in the Medical Curriculum organized by the Faculty of Medicine Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogjakarta and Forum Kedokteran Islam Indonesia (FOKI) at Hotel Ross-In Yogjakarta 24-25 August 2007.








1.1 Understanding the 3 fundamentals, idraak al usuul al ddiin al thalaathat

The three fundamentals of ddiin, usul al ddin, are: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan. These three concepts taken together constitute the creed of Islam, al aqidat al Islamiyya. There is a gradation. Islam is the beginning. Iman is a higher level. Ihsan is the highest level. Islam is outward manifestation, dhaahir. Iman in in the heart, baatin. Ihsan applies to both Islam and iman. Every muhsin is a mu umin. Every mu umin is a Muslim. Not every mu umin is a muhsin. Not every Muslim is a mu umin.


Iman is a higher level of spiritual progress than Islam. Islam is a pre-requisite for iman. You can not have iman without having Islam. It is however possible to be a Muslim who has not yet attained the level of a mu’umin[i]. Iman is knowledge, ‘ilm; testament, qawl; and action, ‘amal[ii]. It is acceptance in the heart, tasdiiq bi al qalb; affirmation by the tongue, iqraar bi al lisaan; and work performance by the body, ‘amal bi al jawarih.  


Ihsan is excellence and is the highest level of din. Ihsan was defined in the sunnah as perfection of action, hadd al ihsaan[iii]. It represents perfection in both Islam and Iman. It is excellence in worship,  work, and in any social action. It is worship of Allah in the full knowledge that He is seeing you even if you cannot see Him. No activity goes by without being observed by Allah[iv]. The concept of excellence extends from prescribed acts of ibadat to all human endeavors and activities. Each human activity is an act of ‘ibadat and as such should be done with excellence. The quest for excellence is a motivation for a Muslim in whatever work he or she is engaged in. It is this quest for excellence and perfection that guarantees that believers are the only ones capable of establishing the best human civilization.


1.2 The testament of tauhid, kalimat al tauhid:

The first duty of an individual on becoming adult is to make the testimony of tauhid. The formula recognized is 'there is no god but one God, la ilaha illa al llaahu. The first part is a negation of the existence of any other god besides the one true God. The second part is an affirmation of the one-ness of the one God. This is a testament of tauhid al uluhiyyat with tauhid al rububiyyat being implied. The testament of tauhid is by the heart, the tongue, and actions. All three are needed for validity of tauhid. Knowing the truth about Allah and rejecting it is kufr. Outward pronouncements and actions without inner belief is nifaaq. As far as humans are concerned, the act of pronouncing the testament confers the legal rights and privileges of a Muslim which include safety of self and property, ‘ismat al maal wa al nafs[v]. In front of Allah the oral testament becomes valid only if it is accompanied by righteous work; mere words are not sufficient. There must be a commitment to those words as manifested in the thinking and behavior of the individual. The Qur’an reports testimony of tauhid by Allah[vi], by the ulama[vii], and by angels[viii].  


1.3 Tauhid: the basis for the Islamic world-view, tasawur islami

The concept of tauhid encapsulates the Islamic world-view, al tasawwur al islami. It is the basis of Islamic culture and civilization. Knowledge, social action and social organizations in Islam are based on the world-view defined by tauhid. Tauhid defines the relation between the human and the creator as well as the relationships among the various creations in the universe. At the start all humans were on tauhid. When they deviated Allah sent messengers to them[ix]. All messengers called people to tauhid[x]. The Qur’an tells us about the call to tauhid by specific messengers: Hud[xi], Salih[xii], Shu’aib[xiii], Ibrahim[xiv], and Yusuf[xv]


1.4 Tauhid as the basis of the concept of ddiin:

The concept of religion in Islam differs from that of other religions. Under tauhid there is integration of everything under Islam. Islam is a comprehensive and all-embracing way of life. All human activity and human endeavors are subsumed under the religion of Islam. It is therefore better and more accurate to use the Qur’anic term diin instead of the commonly used term ‘religion’. Diin is from Allah[xvi]. Ddiin is for Allah alone[xvii]. No human can claim to own or to start diin. No human can have control over diin. All humans can do is follow the diin.


1.5 Characteristics of ‘aqidat al tauhid

Intellectual and abstract: Tauhid is the highest level of the development of the human mind. The concept of one God above and beyond human and the whole universe is an intellectual and abstract reality that can be grasped at the highest levels of intellectual competence. Normally many people do not want to go through the rigors of dealing with an abstract reality and they find easy recourse to one or several material 'gods' they can see and interact with directly.

Integrative: Tauhid is the most powerful concept that provides an integrating framework for the whole universe. All other concepts and empirical phenomena derive from and are explainable by tauhid. Human knowledge and action must have a tauhidi basis to be valid and useful. There would be irreconcilable contradictions in the absence of the integrating framework of tauhid.

Consistent with physical laws: All creation and all phenomena of the universe derive from the one and same source. If the source is one, then there are relationships among all objects and phenomena in the universe. These relationships are the basis for physical and social laws, sunan Allah fi al kawn. These laws are the basis for science and technology. Science seeks to discover and exploit these laws and the associated causal relations.


1.6 Aqidat al tauhid as a basis for success

Tauhid and civilizational success: Tauhid leads to success in this world. The concept of tauhid, by emphasising belief in one creator and sustainer of the whole universe, gives human civilization a beginning and an end. It gives it purpose, an objective, and a sense of direction. It is an integrating concept without which an ever-lasting and successful civilization cannot be built. Many human civilizations that history has recorded could not sustain themselves beyond a few generations because of lack of a central integrating vision like tauhid. They soon run into contradictions and collapsed.


Tauhid and individual success: Tauhid answers fundamental questions of the human: who am I?, How did I come to be?, what is my mission on earth?, what is my destiny?. Sufficient answers to these questions lead to psychological, intellectual, and emotional integrity necessary for success of an individual in life on earth.


Tauhid and success in the hereafter: The testament of oneness of God, shahadat al tauhid, guarantees entry into heaven, man shahida an la ilaaha illa al laahu adkhalahu al laahu al jannat[xviii] and prohibits entry into hell[xix]. Knowledge that there is only one God at the time of death is reason for entering jannat, man maata wa huwa ya’alamu an la ilaaha illa al laahu dakhala al jannat[xx]. A person who dies while not associating God with anything else will enter heaven even if he committed major sins[xxi]; he or she will, however, enter hell for some time as punishment for the sins.


1.7 Implications of tauhid in daily life

HUMAN BROTHERHOOD AND EQUALITY: Tauhid explains the unity of mankind because of a common origin[xxii]. The differences of nations and tribes have the purpose of mutual identification and do not negate the common human brotherhood[xxiii].


SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Tauhid presents the vista of a wide expansive universe which motivates search for knowledge far and wide. Acknowledging existence of one creator, implies that there are fixed physical laws in the universe, sunan Allah fi al kawn. These are the basis for predictable causal relations. The purpose of science is to identify and define these causal relations. Technology exploits or manipulates the causal relations to create benefits, sometimes harm, for humans.


SOCIAL ORGANIZATION: Tauhid, by emphasising a common creator for everything, implies that there must exist social laws needed for smooth functioning of the universe especially human society. Under tauhid the need for a community and family is obvious[xxiv]. Both are structured organisations that ensure integrated harmonious human existence.


ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION: The basic economic teaching under tauhid is that sustenance is from Allah[xxv]. The wealth that an individual gets should not be a cause of arrogance because it is essentially not his or hers. Human economic activities are undertaken with a sense of responsibility knowing that economic resources are in the hands of Allah and that the human is just a vicegerant. The human will therefore undertake economic activity within a moral context defined by Allah. This context requires that economic activity shall promote moral well-being, social and human justice.


POLITICAL ORGANIZATION: Tauhid implies that ultimate political sovereignty is with Allah. Those who wield political power are vicegerents and are thus accountable. They can not behave as if they have absolute authority because that is the prerogative of Allah alone.



2.1 General values

The prophet taught general moral values that can guide medical work. Imaam al Nawawi recorded 30 hadiths that among themselves cover the core values of Islam. Some of them give good guidelines for medical work. All work is recognized according to the intention behind it[xxvi]. Doubtful things are better avoided[xxvii]. Leaving alone what does not concern you[xxviii]. Loving for others what you love for yourself[xxix]. La dharara wa la dhiraar[xxx]. Sincerity in advice[xxxi]. Avoiding what is prohibited and doing as much as is possible of what is enjoined and avoiding too much sterile argumentation and questioning[xxxii]. Renouncing longing for the material goods of the world and the property of other people[xxxiii]. No taking life except by judicial execution[xxxiv]. Claims or allegations must be supported by evidence[xxxv]. In matters of right and wrong, the dictates of the conscience should be followed even if others say otherwise. The righteous act outs the heart at ease, the evil causes it distress[xxxvi]. Excellence and quality work are needed in all endeavors[xxxvii]. The toungue should be guarded[xxxviii]. It is better to keep silent than to speak evil[xxxix]. Anger and rage should be avoided[xl]. Limits set by Allah should not be transgressed[xli]. Consciousness of Allah in all circumstances[xlii]. Performing good acts to wipe out bad ones). Treating people with the best of manners[xliii]. Restraint and modesty[xliv]. Maintaining objectivity[xlv]. Seeking help from Allah[xlvi]. Avoiding oppression or transgression against others[xlvii].


3.2 Integrity, amanat, is when actions are in conformity with your values. Values are universal. Knowledge of what is bad is innate. The Prophet (PBUH) taught that evil is what scratches your chest making you unconfortable, al sharr ma haaka fi al sadr. Religious teachings of what is right and what is wrong only reinforce what good nature already knows. Integrity in essence means successfully carrying and discharging the trust. The trust may be moral or material. Moral trusts include being truthful, trustworthy, and keeping promises and undertakings. Material trusts are property and financial rights of others that must not be violated. Integrity is needed in work[xlviii], leadership[xlix], and moral guidance of others[l]. A distinguishing human attribute of humans is acceptance to carry trust, haml al amanat[li]. A person with integrity fulfils the trust, adau al amanat[lii]. Believers are conscious of the trust, ri'ayat al amanat[liii]. Any breach of integrity is abreach of the trust, khiyanat al amanat[liv]. Never utter an untruth. It is better to keep quiet even in situations in which silence makes you look a fool. There are no white lies. All lies are an untruth and should never be uttered. Your promises and commitments are sacred. Never make any if you are not sure of keeping them. Keeping promises indicates both integrity and efficiency. An organized person who knows what he can or can not do and who manages his time well is less likely to make promises he can not keep.


3.3 Courage, shaja'at,: The essence of courage is to stand up to evil with the full realisation that such a stand may invite unpleasant consequences for you. This is under the general rubric of forbidding evil, nahy al munkar[lv]. The supreme level of courage is to face one self and stand up to the inner desires and passions, hiwa al nafs[lvi]. The high level of courage is to attempt to change evil physically. The middle level is to speak out against it evil. The lowest level is to hate evil in the heart. Courage is needed morally, physically, and emotionally. Moral courage is needed to know your-self, self-criticize, and decide to improve. Social courage is needed to stick to morally right choices in your life even though the society around you may behave differently. Physical courage is needed to stand up for your rights and face the consenquences.


3.4 Wisdom, hikmat, ,  is a sign of maturity. Being given hikmat is being given a lot of good, (p344 2:269). Learn the difference between ‘ilm and hikmat. ‘Ilm is knowledge. Hikmat is a higher level of understanding and using knowledge taking into consideration previous experiences and high moral guiding principles. You are better off with less knowledge and more hikmat. A lot of ilm with no hikmat is positively dangerous.


3.5 Patience, sabr, is needed to deal with problems of life. Problems must be met with inner strength and a sense of hope. Lack of patience is associated with wrong choices and moves. Endurance and perseverence are part of patience. Patience and perseverence is the ability to stick it out and weather all adversities with a strong heart. You must arm yourself to avoid the human tendency to be impatient in expectation of an event or when afflicted by a calamity.


3.6 Humility, tawadhu'u,.  is the beginning of wisdom and is part of iman[lvii]. Know that you have limitations. Do not deceive yourself that you are superior whatever you may be endowed with. Always remember that there are others who may be your equals or actually better than you. Whatever you may have, you are insignificant infront of Allah the Almighty.


3.7 Self-restraint, 'Iffat,: Iffat has a lot of rewards, ajr al iffat[lviii]. The Qur'an has discussed it in many verses[lix]. This is because a human has passions and inner evil promptings that if not controlled will lead to evil action. There are also many temptations in the external social environment that can lead to evil unless countered by a strong self-restraint and self-c0ntrol. Sex is the most powerful drive in humans that can lead to evil. Chastity and sexual discipline is necessary for individual and societal well being. Keep away from zina and what could lead to it. Zina is taken in its comprehensive sense and not the physical act of fornication. Zina of the eye, the mouth, the toungue are destructive to marriage and society in general.


3.8 Modesty, haya: Haya is a very important component of character and is considered part of iman. To be modest is to set limits beyond which there is immorality and sin. A modest person stays shy of those limits and will refrain from things that are clearly permissible but if done in excess can lead to transgression of the limits. Such transgression could also occur by mistake with no malicious intent. Haya is part of iman[lx]. The whole character of Islam is based on it, khulq al Islam al haya[lxi]. The Prophet said that if one has no haya at all then he can do anything. Haya is therefore the protecting barrier against evil. Haya is always good and can never be negative, al haya khayr kullihi[lxii]. Haya is a decoration of the persom who has it, al haya zinat[lxiii]. Haya is the way of all messengers, al haya min sunan al mursalin[lxiv].


3.9 Simplicity is beauty and power. Make your daily life simple; you will get strength. Do not live in much luxury or crowd your mind with so much of worldly, dunia, concerns. Consider your physical environment as an aid to fulfilling your mission and not an end in itself. Wealth and its accumulation can be a temptation, fitnat[lxv].


3.10 Equilibrium and moderation, i'itidaal & wastiyyat: Moderation is the best approach. Be balanced in your attitudes and actions. Avoid extreme positions because you can never have all the facts and full understanding of a particular situation. Taking a middle path gives you a chance to change positions and follow what is right and what is best. You however should never be moderate where evil and immorality are concerned. You must take a clear and extreme position for what is moral and right. Stick your head up high to be counted among supporters of the good and the moral and among opponents of evil. Your actions regarding an evil situation should, however, be moderate to avoid creating new problems that may be worse than the original problem. Be moderate in expenditure; not wasteful and not miserly. Be calm and controlled in moments of emotional arousal, good and bad. Wrong and inappropriate decisions are likely at moments of anger or emotional excietement when the normal balance is lost




















positive image must be maintained in difficult times; this will require extra effort. Keeping company with people who have a positive self-image will help you develop your own image. Positive thinking is contagious; it spreads to those around. Your communication with others (letter, fax, telephone, and conversation ) is an exercise in image projection. Physical appearance (clothes, hair, cleanliness) also project image. Dress well but not for arrogance. Good manners, correct etiquette, and sensitivity enhance the image. Your voice, handshake, smiles, body language, and eye contact can make or unmake your image. Your posture and manner of walking can tell a lot about you. Solving your personal problems and keeping out of depression, anxiety or stress help maintain your positive self-image.


You need to develop an entrepreneurial attitude. This requires developing initiative, optimism, and self-confidence in order to bolster your creativity. Take calculated risks. Look for opportunities and exploit them. Perseverance and determination are necessary for continued success.

[i] (    )

[ii] (KS112: Bukhari K65 S31 B2; Ibn Majah Intro B9)

[iii] (KS66: Bukhari K2 B37; Muslim K1 H1, 5, 7; Tirmidhi K38 B4; Nisai K46 B5, Nisai K46 B6; Ibn Majah intr B9; Ahmad 1:27, Ahmad 1:51, Ahmad 1:52, Ahmad 1:318; Ahmad 2:107, 426; Ahmad 4:129, Ahmad 4:164; Tayalisi 21)

[iv] yunus:6

[v] (KS96: Bukhari K88 B3; Muslim K1 H32-35, 37; Muslim K44 H34; Abudaud K37 B1; Tirmidhi K38 B1; Nisai K37 B1; Ahmad 2:384; Ahmad 3:394, 472; Ahmad 5:4; Ahmad 6:3; Ahmad 6:4; Ahmad 6:5; Tayalisi H1110, Tayalisi H2441 and KS144: Bukhari K24 B1; Bukhari K64 B45; Bukhari K87 B2; Bukhari K96 B2; Muslim K1 H155-160; Abudaud K9 B1; Tirmidhi K44 S88; Ibn Majah K36 B1; Darimi K17 B10,11; Ibn Sa’ad J1 Q1 p128, 129; Ibn Sa’ad J4 Q1 p 47; Ahmad 1:19; Ahmad 1:35; Ahmad 1:47; Ahmad 2: 314; Ahmad 2: 423; Ahmad 2: 439; Ahmad 2: 475; Ahmad 2: 482; Ahmad 2: 502; Ahmad 2: 527; Ahmad 2: 28; Ahmad 3: 295; Ahmad 3: 300; Ahmad 3: 332; Ahmad 3: 339; Ahmad 3: 472; Ahmad 4:8; Ahmad 5:200; Ahmad 5:207; Ahmad 6:394; Tayalisi H626, Tayalisi H1241)

[vi] (p691 3:18, 3:190-191, 35:28)

[vii] (p691 3:18, 3:190-191, 35:28)

[viii] (p691 3:18)

[ix] (baqara:213, yunus:19)

[x] (p691 2:133, 5:72, 5:116-117, 7:59, 7:65, 7:73, 7:85, 11:50?, 11:6, 11:84, 31:35, 23:33, 23:32, 26:75-77, 37:85-87, 37:123-126)

[xi] Araf:65

[xii] Hud:61

[xiii] Hud:84

[xiv] Zukhruf:26-27

[xv] yusuf:39-40

[xvi] (p437: 2:132, 2:132, 3:19, 3:83, 5:3, 9:33, 16:52, 24:2, 30:30, 39:3, 42:21, 48:28, 49:16, 61:9)

[xvii] (p437: 4:146, 4:161, 7:29, 10:22, 29:65, 31:32, 39:2, 39:11, 39:14, 40:14, 40:65, 98:5)

[xviii] (KS96: Bukhari K60 B47; Muslim K1 H46; Ahmad 3:135; Ahmad 3:224)

[xix] (KS96: Muslim K1 H54; Ahmad 3:174q; Ahmad 3:175 and KS144: Bukhari K8 B46; Bukhari K19 B36; Bukhari K65 S2 B22; Bukhari K70 B16; Bukhari K77 B44q; Bukhari K81 B6q; Bukhari K88 B9; Muslim K1 H52; Muslim K4 H9; Muslim K5 H263, 264; Abudaud K19 B15; Tirmidhi K38 B17; Ibn Sa’ad J3 Q2 p49; Ahmad 1:4061; Ahmad 1: 304; Ahmad 3:451; Ahmad 3:466; Ahmad 4:43, Ahmad 4:44; Ahmad 4:402; Ahmad 4:411; Ahmad 5:336; Tayalisi H444; Ibn Hishaam 957; Waqidi 400)

[xx] (KS96: Bukhari K3 B49; Muslim K1 H43; Muslim K1 H45, Muslim K1 H47, Muslim K1 H53; Ahmad 3:241 q; Ahmad 5:229; Ahmad 5:318; Tayalisi H1291, Tayalisi H1965 and KS144: Tirmidhi K38 B17; Ahmad 1:65; Ahmad 1:69; Ahmad 1:374; Ahmad 1:382; Ahmad 1:402; Ahmad 1:407; Ahmad 1:425)

[xxi] (KS144: Bukhari K23 B1; Bukhari K43 B3; Bukhari K59 B6; Bukhari K79 B30; Bukhari K81 B13; Bukhari K81 B14; Bukhari K97 B33; Muslim K1 H153, Muslim K1 H154; Muslim K12 H32, Muslim K12 H33: Tirmidhi K38 B18; Ahmad 2:170q, Ahmad 2:357; Ahmad 4:260; Ahmad 5:152; Ahmad 5:159; Ahmad 5:161; Ahmad 5:166; Ahmad 6:442)

[xxii] (2:213, 10:19)

[xxiii] (49:13)

[xxiv] (7:189-190, 25:54)

[xxv] (29:60-62)

[xxvi] (Bukhari H1, Muslim H1907, Abudaud H2201, Tirmidhi H1647, Nisai 1:59, Nisai 1:60, Ibn Majah H4227)

[xxvii] (Tirmidhi H2520, Ahmad 1:200, Nisai 8:327, Nisai 8:328, Darimi H2535)

[xxviii] (Tirmidhi H2318, Ibn Majah H3976)

[xxix] (Bukhari H13, Muslim H45, Nisai 8:115, Tirmidhi H2517, Ibn Majah H66, Darimi H2743, Ahmad 3:176, Ahmad 3:177, Ahmad 3:206, Ahmad 3:207, Ahmad 3:251, Ahmad 3:272, Ahmad 3:275, Ahmad 3:278, Ahmad 3:289)

[xxx] (Muwatta 2:745, Ibn Majah H2340, Ibn Majah H2341)

[xxxi] (Muslim H55, Abudaud H4944, Nisai 7:152, Ahmad 4:102)

[xxxii] (Bukhari H7288, Muslim H137, Nisai 5:110)

[xxxiii] (Ibn Majah H4102)

[xxxiv] (Bukhari H6878, Muslim H1676, Abudaud H4352, Tirmidhi H1402, Nisai 7:90, Nisai 7:91)

[xxxv] (Bayhaqi 10:252, Bukhari H4552, Muslim H1711)

[xxxvi] (Ahmad 4:228, Darimi H2536)

[xxxvii]  (Muslim H1955, Abudaud H2815, Tirmidhi H1409, Nisai 7:227)

[xxxviii] (Tirmidhi H2619, Ahmad 5:231, Ahmad 5:234, Ahmad 5:237, Ahmad 5:245, Ahmad 5:246, Ibn Majah H3973)

[xxxix] (Bukhari H6018, Bukhari H6136, Bukhari H6475, Muslim H47, Abudaud H5154, Tirmidhi H2502, Ibn Majah H3971)

[xl] (Bukhari H6116, Tirmidhi H2021)

[xli] (Dar Qutni 4:184)

[xlii] (Tirmidhi H1988, Ahmad 5:228, Ahmad 5:236)

[xliii] (Tirmidhi H1988, Ahmad 5:228, Ahmad 5:236)

[xliv] (Bukhari H3483, Abudaud H4797)

[xlv] (Muslim)

[xlvi]  (Tirmidhi H2518, Ahmad 1:307)

[xlvii] (Muslim H2577, Tirmidhi H2497)

[xlviii] (p149 28:26)

[xlix] (p. 149 12:54)

[l] (p149 7:68)

[li] (33:72)

[lii] (p148 2:283, 3:75, 4:58)

[liii] (p149 23:8, 70:32)

[liv] (p149 8:27, 12:11, 12:64)

[lv] (p1267-8 3:104, 3:110, 3:114, 4:31, 5:63, 5:78-79, 6:28, 7:157, 7:165-166, 9:71, 9:112, 11:88, 11:116, 16:90, 18:74, 22:41, 24:21, 29:29, 29:4, 31:17, 58:2, 59:7)

[lvi] (79:40)

[lvii] (KS462 Tirmidhi K25 B80)

[lviii] (KS386 Muslim K48 H100, Tirmidhi K45 B100, Ahmad 2:23, 116, Ahmad 3:142, Ahmad 4:274, Ahmad 5:264)

[lix] (p815-816 2:273, 4:6, 21:91, 23:5-7, 24:30-31, 24:33, 24:60, 33:35)

[lx] (KS206 Bukhari K2 B3, Bukhari K2 B16, Bukhari K78 B77, Muslim K1 H57, Muslim K1 H58, Muslim K1 H59, Abudaud K39 B14, Abudaud K40 B6, Tirmidhi K25 B65, Tirmidhi K38 B7, Tirmidhi K35 B24, Ibn Majah Intr B9, Ibn Majah K37 B17, Nisai K47 B16, Nisai K47 B27, Darimi Intr B42, Muwatta K47 H10, Ahmad 2:9, Ahmad 2:56, Ahmad 2:147, Ahmad 2:414, Ahmad 2:442, Ahmad 2:501, Ahmad 4:121, Ahmad 4:122, Ahmad 4:205, Ahmad 5:269, Ahmad 5:273, Ahmad 5:383)

[lxi] (KS206 Ibn Majah K37 B17, Muwatta K47 H9)

[lxii] (KS206 Muslim K1 H60, Muslim K1 H61, Ahmad 4:426, Ahmad 4:427, Ahmad 4:436, Ahmad 4:440, Ahmad 4:442, Ahmad 4:445, Ahmad 4:446, Tayalisi H853, Tayalisi H854)

[lxiii] (KS 207)

[lxiv] (KS206 Tiormidhi K9 B1)

[lxv] (KS420 Ahmad 4:160)

ŠProfessor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. August 2007