0702-Therapeutic Procedures II: Medical & Surgical

Background reading for Year 1 Semester 2 PPSD Session on Wednesday 14th February 2007 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.


Medical treatment may involve destruction (antibiotics, cytotoxics, anti-metabolites, antagonists, antitoxins, and detoxification), replacement (hormones, fluids, and electrolytes), biological modification & modulation, psycho-active therapy, and supportive treatment (diet, rest, analgesia etc).


It is prohibited to use material classified as prohibited, haram, or filthy, najasat, as treatment except in situations of necessity, dharurat.


What is prohibited as food or drink is also prohibited as medicine. Exceptions are made in cases of dharuurat.


Medicine taken orally does not nullify the state of ablution, wudhu. Medicine given per rectum nullifies the state of ablution. Subcutaneous or intravenous or intramuscular injections do not nullify ablution unless there is extensive external bleeding.


Any medicine taken orally or rectally or any insertion of a scope will nullify puasa. Any medicine that is taken but is not swallowed and is vomited out is considered like vomitus and will nullify fasting, puasa.




Surgical procedures include resection, restorative/reconstructive surgery, transplantation, blood transfusion, anesthesia, and critical care.


Transfusion of whole blood or blood components is widely accepted and raises few legal or ethical issues. Blood donation is analogous to organ donation by a living donor.


Transfused blood is not considered filth, najasat, because it is not spilled blood. Blood transfusion is allowed on the basis of necessity.


There is no problem in blood donation between people of different religions and races because they share human brotherhood. There is no problem in blood transfusion between a man and a woman.


Blood transfusion does not abrogate the state of ablution, wudhu, of the donor or the recipient.


Sale of blood is controversial. Some permit it using the analogy of sale of milk by wet nurse who is paid for her services.


In emergency treatment/critical care, financial considerations complicate the picture when destitute patients who cannot pay present at the emergency room.



Religious opposition to Immunization is countered by the argument that immunization and other preventive measures are treatment before disease and are not denial of pre-determination.


Mass childhood immunization has been associated with decreased incidence of childhood infectious diseases. There are however arguments that it was the general improvement in health and social conditions and not immunization that was responsible for the decline of childhood infectious disease


Since the diseases are rare, voices have been raised against immunization as presenting unacceptable risks that outweigh potential benefits.


The diseases even if they occur are known to be milder than during the pre-vaccinations era and therefore do not require vaccination.


Many parents in practice do not take their children for immunization and the children are healthy


There are also arguments against mandatory mass immunization based on human rights that it cannot be imposed on families by the authorities.



Supplications, dua, and other spiritual treatments can be used alongside medical and surgical treatment.


Various traditional, alternative, and complementary therapies are permitted if they are of benefit.


Other permitted treatment modalities are irradiation, immunotherapy, and genetic therapy

ŠProfessor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. February 2007