ENJOINING KINDNESS TO ANIMALS
prophet enjoined kindness to animals. Saving animals from danger is a noble act. There is reward for kindness to animals.
PROHIBITING CRUELTY TO ANIMALS
and physical abuse of animals are prohibited. There is severe punishment is reserved for cruel treatment if animals. Face
branding, beating, cursing, sexual abuse, sexual abuse, and wanton killing of animals were forbidden.
ANIMAL RESEARCH: PURPOSE and RELEVANCE
purpose of animal research is to spare humans from risk. Findings in animals are relevant to humans because of similarities
in physiology and biochemistry. However findings in animals cannot be directly transferred to humans; research on humans is
still necessary for a definitive conclusion. Animal research is exploratory and not definitive.
THE LAW AND ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION
position of the Law is that animal experiments are allowed if a prima facie case can be established that the result
of the research is a necessity, dharuurat. Dharuurat under the Law is what is necessary for human life. The
regulations of necessity require that no more than the absolute minimum necessary should be done Animal research has definite
risks for the animals that are not balanced by any benefits: pain, suffering, permanent injury, inhumane treatment and operations,
and being killed (sacrificed). Thus use of animals in justifiable on the basis of taskhiir and not any benefits that
accrue to the animals. The risks to humans from animal research are minimal in the short term; long-term effects are difficult
to fathom. The purposes and principles of the Law can be used to analyze all legal aspects of animal experimentation.
OUTSTANDING ETHICO-LEGAL ISSUESThere are limits to taskhiir. Humans were not given a carte blanche to exploit animals
in any way they liked. They have to conform to the Law and moral guidelines. If the results of animal experimentation will
lead to protection of human life, then research is allowed to proceed because then it is a necessity. This is similar to killing
animals for food, a necessity for human life. If research is for general scientific curiosity unrelated to any tangible human
benefit, then it is beyond the authorization of taskhiir. There are differences among animals. Animals considered dangerous
and must be killed. Use of such animals for research should therefore raise fewer ethical objections than other animals. All
types of animals used in research cannot be subjected to unnecessary pain and suffering. Animals whose flesh is edible are
preferably used in research. Use of animals that are haram like the pig should be avoided as much as possible and should be
considered only in cases of dharurat. Animals, like humans, have rights to enjoyment of life and good health. The researcher
must therefore follow Islamic etiquette to minimize animal suffering. The basmalah is said at the start of an animal experiment,
similar to slaughter of animals for food, in recognition of the fact that the experiment is carried out with the permission
of the creator under the requirements of taskhiir. The animals must be shown kindness and respect. They should not
be subjected to the psychological pain of seeing other animals in pain or being sacrificed. Pain must be minimized both during
the experiment and when the animal is being terminally sacrificed. This is based on the legal requirement of slaughtering
animals using a sharp knife and as quickly as possible to prevent pain and suffering. The long-term effects of the experiment
on the animal must be considered and efforts made to decrease suffering and pain. The nutritional and medical needs of the
animal must be taken care of before, during, and after the research.