puts emphasis on seeking knowledge. The search for knowledge is a difficult but necessary process as we learn from
the story of Musa and the righteous man. Islam encourages benefiting from and using knowledge. There is no consideration for
knowledge not accompanied by practical application.
Tadabbur involves critical observation and consideration of information. Tadabbur involves critical consideration of information. Humans are encouraged to derive empirical knowledge from
observation of the earth and their own bodies. The observation referred to is serious and deliberative, al nadhar bi al tadabbur. Tadabbir is required even with the holy text
of the Qur’an. Thought can be based on empirical observation. The observation can be of the earth. It can also be by
observation of the human body. Islam encourages active intellectual effort in looking for knowledge. The process of ijtihad is exertion of maximum intellectual effort to discover the truth or understand the relation between truths. Ijtihad is also used to discover and identify falsehoods. There are parallels between
the tools of ijtihad used by classical Muslim scholars and the processes of reaching
conclusions in modern scientific research. The process of inductive logic used in medical research is the same as qiyaas
usuuli used by scholars of the methodology of the Law. The process of reaching a scientific consensus is similar to the
process of scholarly consensus. The prophet taught that there is a cure for every disease. There is an injunction to search
for cures by processes of medical research.
committee approves research proposals and protocols that have ethical implications. It ensures the highest ethical standards
in any research and protection of research subjects as stipulated in the Helsinki declaration, and protection of researchers from
committing mistakes that lead to criminal prosecution. It monitors the conduct of the study to detect any ethical violations.
Membership should include major medical and surgical specializations, hospital physicians, hospital nursing staff, general
practitioners, pharmacists, statisticians, ethicists, and lay persons from the community. All genders and age groups must
be represented. The research application form consists of the following: identifying information, description of the research,
protocol and dates, methodology of research, and ethico-legal issues. The patient/volunteer information sheet provides information
on the research: purposes, procedures, duration, risks, benefits, and ethico-legal issues. The informed consent form ensures
that the research subject understands the research and voluntarily agrees to participate. A confidential questionnaire for
research subjects should include questions on the adequacy of the information sheet amd voluntary consent. A confidential
review questionnaire for researchers should include items about: start and end of the study, protocol amendments, progress
of recruitment, provision of information, obtaining consent, withdrawal of consent, adverse events, and outcome of research.
is a departure from the commonly accepted treatment. Recruitment into studies should reflect the community’s ethnic,
gender, and age distribution. Results of an unbalanced study may not be applicable to all groups. Decisions on research priorities
may be made on a scientific basis or a non-scientific basis (political, socio-cultural, elite interests). The source of funding
may in an indirect and discreet way influence the conduct of research and the report of its findings thus leading to lack
of objectivity. Islam enjoins dissemination of knowledge. Islam encourages dissemination of research findings by teaching
or publication. Islam prohibits hiding knowledge. Drug companies that sponsor research to develop patentable products do not
appreciate the type of transparency advocated by Islam. Publication of research results serves scientific communication and
scientific networking. Concern about copyright and intellectual property rights limits dissemination of knowledge by publication.
Biases in publication arise at the level of researchers who normally do not submit negative studies for publication. Editors
prefer publishing positive studies. Biases in selection of papers for publication arise from the peer review process due to
old boy networks. Despite the best of efforts to police itself, the scientific research community still has cases of research
fraud. Fraud manifests as cooking or doctoring data, selective reporting of data, suppression of negative information, and
‘stealing’ others’ work. Financial gain, reputation, and the pressure to publish or perish are the driving
forces behind fraud.