DEFINITION OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT
spectrum of child abuse is wide. It includes not only children who have suffered physical abuse with fractures and bruises
(“the battered child”) but also those who have experienced emotional abuse, sexual abuse, deliberate poisoning,
and the infliction of fictitious illness on them by their parents (Munchausen syndrome by proxy).
under the age of two are most liable to suffer direct physical abuse at the hands of their parents. Such abuse is more common
in families who are poor and are living under stress and in which the parents themselves suffered cruelty as children. Frequently,
the child shows other evidence of poor nutrition or neglect.
abuse, in which dependent, developmentally immature children are involved in sexual activities that they do not fully comprehend
and to which they cannot give informed consent, has become increasingly recognized. Girls are involved mainly, and their fathers
are the usual offenders. Sexual abuse frequently does not come to light until the older girl develops a psychosomatic illness,
runs away from home, or is truant from school.
PREVALENCE OF CHILD ABUSE
in North America and Europe
that ask adult subjects to recall childhood mistreatment indicate that between 10 and 30 percent of young girls are subjected
to exploitation or abuse as widely defined above. Estimates of abuse or neglect by parents or guardians range from about 1
out of every 100 children to more than 1 in 7, and figures are far higher if emotional abuse and neglect are included.
widely prevalent, child abuse often is overlooked by family, friends, and health professionals. Prejudice, anxiety, and shame—not
lack of information—seem to be the major reasons for the failure to recognize these private acts of violence—a
form of tacit denial that leads to their perpetuation.
abuse can have serious future consequences for its victims, including delays in physical growth, impaired language and cognitive
abilities, and problems in personality development, learning, and behaviour.
CAUSES OF CHILD ABUSE
to children has several major causes. Abusive patterns of behaviour by parents can be viewed as maladaptive responses to stressful
situations and feelings of powerlessness. As such, they represent the warped efforts of adults to master situations that are
out of their control and to regain a psychological equilibrium through the imposition of their will on defenseless children.
and pediatric studies have shown that a large proportion of parents who abuse their children were themselves physically or
emotionally mistreated during their childhood. Typically overdisciplined and deprived of parental love in their infancy, these
parents repeat the pattern with their own children, often in the belief that they are legitimately exercising their parental
right to punish a child. This “cycle of abuse” is a particularly important factor in cases of sexual abuse, and
it is now widely believed that many child molesters were victims of abuse as children.
remedies for child abuse range from the incarceration of the offender to the removal of the abused child from the custody
of parents or others guilty of committing the crime. With proper social and psychotherapeutic intervention, many child abusers
can be helped. In fact, many emotionally troubled abusers are relieved to be discovered, and often they respond well to the
therapeutic help they receive. However, some recent theories about child molesters suggest that their conditions are less
susceptible to intervention than was once believed, and many jurisdictions have resorted to strict penal solutions, such as
sexual-predator laws, which provide for indefinite incarceration for habitual sexual offenders. The treatment or cure of offenders
is thought to be more difficult when the victims are young children or toddlers, and compulsive pedophiles are viewed as intractable
problems for both therapy and the justice system.
legal definition of child abuse differs between societies and has changed significantly over time. For example, the age of
sexual consent varies greatly between and even within countries. Some European countries prohibit the use of physical violence
to enforce discipline, though others permit moderate forms of coercion. Despite these differences, the abusive treatment of
children, however it is defined, is widely proscribed by criminal statutes.
legislation proliferated during the 1960s. First developed in the United
States, these laws soon became models for criminal statutes in many other countries. In 1962,
American medical authorities discovered the phenomenon of “baby battering”—the infliction of physical violence
on small children—and both the federal government and states adopted laws to investigate and report such acts; eventually,
these laws were applied to cases of sexual abuse and molestation. In 1974 the United States
created a National Center
on Child Abuse and Neglect.
the 1970s, conservative and feminists groups, for different reasons, have sought aggressive measures to combat child abuse.
Although earlier campaigns against child molestation had emphasized the threat posed by strangers, feminists stressed what
they perceived as the vastly greater danger posed by male intimates, such as fathers, stepfathers, uncles, and brothers. Because
abuse by male relatives is rarely reported by the family involved, child-welfare advocates called for new laws that would
allow greater intervention by outside professionals. During the 1970s and '80s, most states adopted some form of mandatory-reporting
procedure whereby doctors, teachers, and social workers were required to report any circumstances that might reveal suspected
child abuse. The courts also revamped their procedures to grant more protection to victims. For example, to remove the need
for child witnesses to confront the accused, children often were permitted to testify from behind screens or even by video
link from another room, and judges and lawyers were encouraged to frame questions and language in a way that did not baffle
or intimidate children.
with the changes in laws and attitudes came a dramatic upsurge in the number of reported abuse cases. Between 1976 and 1986,
reports of child abuse and neglect across the United States
rose threefold to over two million, with a further increase to nearly three million reports by the mid-1990s. However, a majority
of these reports were judged to be unfounded. Reports of sexual abuse rose 18-fold between 1976 and 1985. The increases in
recorded child-abuse figures, which may have been a result of greater awareness of the problem rather than a surge in abuse,
contributed to a widespread impression that society was suffering an “epidemic” of child abuse, and concern reached
immense proportions during the 1980s.
the mid-1980s, child abuse was considered a leading social problem in the United
States and other Western countries. The extent of the problem seemed to many to be increasing,
and many claims were made about the prevalence of incest, child abduction, and even child murder, as well as the operation
of organized child-abuse rings. In part these charges were the result of new methods used by social workers and psychotherapists
to interview children suspected of being victims of abuse. Interviews conducted with these methods often suggested that the
child had been exploited, and some interviews, especially with toddlers, appeared to yield details of sexual abuse so bizarre
and shocking as to suggest that it had been committed in ritualistic fashion by some kind of cult. Also contributing to the
perceived increase in the incidence of child abuse was the controversial practice of some psychotherapists of attributing
the problems reported by adult patients to repressed memories of sexual abuse suffered during childhood.
fact, however, many of the children who reported sexual and other forms of abuse through the new methods were inventing the
stories they told. As critics later pointed out, the methods—which involved repeatedly asking leading and suggestive
questions and rewarding children for giving the “right” answers—encouraged children to tell false stories
of abuse or to believe, contrary to fact, that abuse had taken place. One significant series of cases involving such reports
were the trials beginning in 1984 of Virginia McMartin, founder of the McMartin Preschool in Manhattan Beach, California, and others on dozens of counts
of child abuse. Most of the charges, which were based on reports of abuse collected in interviews with hundreds of students,
were eventually dropped for lack of evidence. In 1990, the last case resulting from the affair ended in a mistrial; thus,
no convictions were ever secured. Even so, the careers of the McMartin family, as well as their reputations, were ruined.
During the decade after the revelations in the McMartin case, thousands of people worldwide were likewise accused of involvement
in ritual abuse.
the early 1990s, charges of ritual abuse and recovered memory encountered serious criticism, which dealt a setback to the
child-protection movement. Although concern about sexual threats to children remained undiminished, doubts about charges of
abuse by parents and intimates led to renewed attention to child abuse—especially molestation—committed by strangers.
These fears were often centred on the Internet, which some considered a potential means for pedophiles to stalk and seduce
children and which others denounced for making child pornography widely available. Following a number of well-publicized cases
of child sexual abuse and murder in the early 1990s, many U.S.
states passed sexual-predator laws, which provided for the lengthy detention of sex offenders, especially those who had preyed
upon children. Jurisdictions also passed other stringent laws, including variations of Megan's law, which required that local
schools, day-care facilities, and residents be notified by police of the presence of convicted sex offenders in their communities.
Although these measures posed a serious threat of vigilantism and arguably infringed the legal rights of the offenders, supporters
justified them by citingthe extreme danger posed to children by molesters and pedophiles. The laws were widely imitated in
Europe. Nevertheless, reports of child abuse in developed countries grew sharply in the 1990s.
Japan, for example, recorded a ten-fold
increase in the period 1990–2000.
Opinions about the scale and
nature of child abuse have changed dramatically since the 1960s, and the notion that children are widely subject to abuse
and exploitation has become firmly fixed in the public consciousness. Child abuse also has become a major topic of study in
academia; themes of incest and abuse are now common in the social and behavioral sciences, as well as in such diverse subjects
as literature, social theory, and cultural and women's studies. The surging interest in child abuse, child protection, and
children's rights was one of the most significant social developments of the late 20th century.