Background reading material for Year 2 Semester 1 PPSD session on September 12, 2007 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule,
Purposes of public speaking
Public speaking has several purposes. It informs, entertains, inspires, convinces, motivates, teaches,
Elements of public speaking
Public speaking involves the speaker, the message, the delivery, and listeners.
The speaker must have integrity, knowledge, a positive attitude, sensitivity to the audience and the
situation, oral skills, self-confidence, self-control, good preparation, energy, sincerity, and credibility (based on physical
appearance, posture, gestures, movements, and voice quality).
The message of a successful speech is short, simple, sincere, related to the audience, well prepared,
based on knowledge of the subject, innovative, and creative. The topic is narrowed to 2-3 points. The introduction is a concise
overview that raises interest and expectations. The body of the speech consists of main points as well as links and transitions
to ensure a smooth flow. The conclusion summarizes key ideas, gives a sense of completeness, and appeals to the audience.
The language must be clear and appropriate for the topic, situation, and audience. Rehearsing a speech
increases the speaker's confidence. The methods of delivery are from memory, by reading manuscript, ex-tempore, and impromptu.
Retention is increased by audio-visuals, repetition, periods of silence, audience participation, short and simple speeches,
examples and stories, acronyms, memorable quotes, sincerity, appropriate body language and emotion.
from the audience are heckling, hostility, inattention, and challenges by experts. The speaker must anticipate questions and
prepare for them. He must empathize with the questioner and show he understands them.