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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES-04

0711-Teaching An Expanded Definition of Prophetic Medicine Based on Contemporary Medical Knowledge

Paper presented at Musolla Al Zahrawi Universiti Antarabangsa Kuantan Malaysia on 2nd November 2007 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.

ABSTRACT

This paper suggests what should be taught under the theme of prophetic medicine, tibb nabawi, in the medical curriculum. Hadiths of the prophetic medicine has been understood at various periods of history according to the level of medical knowledge existing at that time. The recent expansion of medical knowledge has necessitated a deeper and wider understanding of these hadiths as well as identification of more hadiths of medical importance. This paper shows that there are many hadiths that relate to medicine than were not acknowledged before for 2 reasons. The first reason was that new knowledge that enables us to understand medical implications of many hadiths today was not available to our ancestors. The second reason is that our ancestors’ concept of tibb nabawi was related to specific therapy of specific conditions. We know today that medicine is wider covering manifestations of disease (physical, social, and psychological), disease risk factors, disease prevention, and impact of disease on physical, social, and psychological functions. This expanded definition also includes the impact of disease on ibadat obligations as well as basic medical sciences. Inn summary the new and expanded understanding of tibb nabawi covers all what a medical professional needs to know from hadith literature to help his professional activities as well as reading the hadith from the context of medical science.

1.0 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TIBB NABAWI

1.1 DEFINITION

Tibb Nabawi refers to words and actions of the Prophet with a bearing on disease, treatment of disease, and care of patients. Thus also included are words of the prophet on medical matters, medical treatment practiced by others on the prophet, medical treatments practised by the prophet on himself and others, medical treatments observed by the prophet with no objections, medical procedures that the prophet heard or knew about and did not prohibit, or medical practices that were so common that the prophet could not have failed to know about them. The prophet's medical teachings were specific for place, population, and time. They however also included general guidance on physical and mental health that are applicable to all places, all times, and all circumstances. Tibb nabawi is not one monolithic or systematic medical system as some people would want us to believe. It is varied and circumstantial. It covers preventive medicine, curative medicine, mental well-being, spiritual cures or ruqyah, medical and surgical treatments. It integrates mind and body, matter and spirit.

1.2 SEARCH FOR CURES

The Prophet enunciated a basic principle in medicine that for every disease there is cure (ma anzala allahu daa; illa anzala lahu shifa'a- Kitaab al Tibb, al Bukhari). This is an impetus for us to look for remedies. Thus the prophetic medical tradition does not stop at only the medical teachings of the prophet but goes beyond to encourage humans to search and experiment with new treatment modalities. This implies among other things that prophetic medicine is not static. There is room for growth and even breaking new ground. Al Habba al Saudaa was recommended by the the Prophet as a general treatment and has been studied extensively. Other implications of this hadith is that seeking treatment does not contradict qadar (pre-determination). Thus both the disease and its treatment are part of qadar.

2.0 PREVIOUS WRITINGS ON PROPHETIC MEDICINE

2.1 LISTING OF BOOKS

Many books have been written on tibb nabawi each one reflecting the medical knowledge of the era in which it was written. The following is a listing of all such books. Books with the title al Tibb al Nabawi were written by Ibn al Qayyim al Jawziyyat (d. 751H / 1350 M), al Hafidh Abu Abd al llaah Shams al Ddiin Muhammad bin Ahmad al Dhahabi (d. 748H), Abu al Qasim al Husain bin Muhammad bin Habiib al Naisapuuri (d. 206H), Abu al Sunni Abu Bakar Ahmad bin Muhammad al Dainawiri (d. 364H), Abu Nu’aim Ahmad bin Abd al llaah al Asfahani (d. 430H), Abu al ‘Abbaas Ja’afar bin al Mu’utazz al Mustansiri (d. 433H), Dhia al Ddiin Muhammad bin ‘Abd al Waahid al Maqdasi (d. 643H), Shams al Ddiin Abu Abd al llaah Muhammad bin Abi al Fath al Ba’ali (d. 709H), Abu Abd al llaah Muhammad bin Yusuf al Sanuusi (d. 895H), Abu al Hasan Nur al ddiin Ali Bin Muhammad al Jazaar al Masri (d. 914H), Qaysuufi Zaadet Muhammad Badr al Ddiin (d. 1020H), Abd al Waziir al Abhari, and Jamaal al Ddiin Daud,

Mukhtasar al tibb al nabawi was written by Jalaluddin al Suyuti. Al Ahkaam al Nabawiyyat fi al sina’at an tibiyyat was written by the physician ‘Ali bin Tarkhaan. Kitaab al tibb fi al hadiith by Abu ‘Ubaid bin al Hasan al Harraani (d. 369H). Al Ahkaam al Nabawiyyah fi al sina’at al tibiyyat by Ali bin Abd al Karim al Hamawi (d. 720H). Al Rahmat fi al Tibb wa al Hikmat by Mahdi bin Ali al Sabiiri (d. 815H), al Sayr al Qawi fi al Tibb al Nabawi by Muhammad bin And al Rahman al Sakhaawi (d. 902H), Al Manhaj al Sawi a al Manhal al rawi fi al Tibb al Nabawi by Jalal al Ddiin Abd al Rahman bin Abu Bakar al Suyuti (d.911H). Al Rahmat fi al Tibb wa al Hikmat by Jalal al Ddiin Abd al Rahman bin Abu Bakar al Suyuti (d.911H). Rawdh al Insan fi Tadaabiir Sihhat al Abdaan by Khair al Ddiin Khidhr bin Mahmud al ‘Atuufi al Murzaifuuni (d. 948H). Al Masaabih al Sunniyyat fi Tibb Khair al Bariyyat by Shihaab al Ddiin Abu al ‘Abbaas Ahmad bin Ahmad bin Salamah al Qalyuubi (d. 1069H). Sihhat Aabaad by Othman Zadeh Taa ib Ahmad (d. 839H). Mukhtasar al Tibb al Nabawi by Mur’ish ZadehQudduus Ahmad Affendi (d. 1265H).

In general the understanding of tibb nabawi was related to therapeutics ie medical and surgical treatment of diseases. In a modern context medical knowledge has enabled us to understand risk factors of diseases as well as more extensive disease manifestations. We therefore need a wider meaning of tibb nabawi.

We can discuss the 2 books by Ibn al Qayyim and al Suyuuti to illustrate the point that their interpretation of prophetic hadiths relating to medicine reflected contemporary medical knowledge.

3.0 LISTING OF BUKHARI HADITHS WITH MEDICAL IMPLICATIONS: IBADAT & ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING, ‘aadaat

3.1 Wudhu

1. Istinthaar in wudhu Bukhari Kitab Al Wudhu (K4) B25 H161

2. Rinsing the mouth in wudhu Bukhari Kitab Al Wudhu (K4) B28 H164

3. Rinsing the mouth after suwaik Bukhari Kitab Al Wudhu (K4) B53

4. Rinsing the mouth after milk especially if it has fat Bukhari Kitab Al Wudhu (K4) B54

5. Wiping the head Bukhari Kitab Al Wudhu (K4) B39 H185

6. Washing the two legs until the ankles Bukhari Kitab Al Wudhu (K4) B40 H186

7. Wiping on the khuff Bukhari Kitab Al Wudhu (K4) B50 H202

8. Prohibition of wudhu with nabiidh, milk, and intoxicants Bukhari Kitab Al Wudhu (K4)

9. Excellence of sleeping with wudhu Bukhari Kitab Al Wudhu (K4) B79

3.2 Tayammum

10. Verses ordaining tayammum Kitab Al Tayammum (K7) B1 H334

11. Tayammum is for face and the 2 hands Kitab Al Tayammum (K7) B5 H343

12. Tayammum for cold or disease Kitab Al Tayammum (K7) B7 H345

13. Tayammum is one touch Kitab Al Tayammum (K7) B8 H347

3.3 Salat

14. Salat on the bed Kitab Al Salat (K8) B22 H382

15. Sujuud on a cloth Kitab Al Salat (K8) B23 H385

16. Salat in sandals Kitab Al Salat (K8) B24 H386

17. Salat in khuff Kitab Al Salat (K8) B25 H388

18. Facing qiblat in faridhat and any direction in nafilat Kitab Al Salat (K8) B31 H400

19. All earth is masjid and tahuur Kitab Al Salat (K8) B56 H438

20. A hospital in the masjid for the sick Kitab Al Salat (K8) B99 H508

3.4 Times of salat

21. Waiting for cooling before praying dhuhr in extreme heat Bukhari Kitab Mawaqit al Salat (K9) B9 H533

22. Delaying dhuhr until asr Bukhari Kitab Mawaqit al Salat (K9) B12 H534

23. Qadha of salat one by one in order they were missed Bukhari Kitab Mawaqit al Salat (K9) B39 H598

24. Remembering a forgotten salat Bukhari Kitab Mawaqit al Salat (K9) B38 H597

3.5 Adhan

25. The hadd of the patient is to attend the jamaat Bukhari Kitaab Al Adhan (K10) B39 H664

26. The patient prays in the house and not the masjid Bukhari Kitaab Al Adhan (K10) B39 H667

27. If food is presented and salat is called Bukhari Kitaab Al Adhan (K10) B42 H671

28. Standing beside the imam for a reason (‘illat) Bukhari Kitaab Al Adhan (K10) B47 H683

29. A semi-conscious person who attempts to offer salat Bukhari Kitaab Al Adhan (K10) B687 H687?

30. Imam takes too long and a person with a problem leaves salat Bukhari Kitaab Al Adhan (K10) B60 H700

31. Imaam to shorten the standing Bukhari Kitaab Al Adhan (K10)B61 H702

32. Shortening salat for crying of a baby Bukhari Kitaab Al Adhan (K10) B65 H707

33. Sujuud is on 7 bones Bukhari Kitaab Al Adhan (K10) B133 H809

34. Sujuud on the nose Bukhari Kitaab Al Adhan (K10) B134 H812

35. Completing the rukuu Bukhari Kitaab Al Adhan (K10) B119 H791

36. Straightening the back after rukuu Bukhari Kitaab Al Adhan (K10) B120

37. Completing sujuud Bukhari Kitaab Al Adhan (K10) B132 H818

38. Sitting for a while between 2 sujuuds Bukhari Kitaab Al Adhan (K10) B140 H818

39. Supporting oneself on the ground on rising from sujuud Bukhari Kitaab Al Adhan (K10) B144 H825

40. Onions in the mosque Bukhari Kitaab Al Adhan (K10) B160 H853

3.6 Jumu’at

39. Washing on Friday Bukhari Kitaab al Jumaat (K11) B2 H877

41. Siwaak at time of salat Bukhari Kitaab al Jumaat (K11) B8 H887

42. Siwaak on rising from sleep Bukhari Kitaab al Jumaat (K11) B8 H889

43. Repeating siwaak Bukhari Kitaab al Jumaat (K11) B8 H888

44. Cleaning away dust on Friday Bukhari Kitaab al Jumaat (K11) B15 H902

45. Salat early on cold days and late on hot days Bukhari Kitaab al Jumaat (K11) B17 H906

46. Walking to jumaat Bukhari Kitaab al Jumaat (K11) B18 H907

47. Qailula after jumaat Bukhari Kitaab al Jumaat (K11) B41 H941

3.7 Eidain

48. Entertainment BUKHARI K13 B1 H948

3.8 Istisqau

49. Famine:Istisqau in the masjid jamei BUKHARI K15 B5 H1013

50. Floods: dua if rain too much BUKHARI K15 B9 H1017

3.9 Salat in difficult conditions

51. Shortening salat for a journey BUKHARI K15 B5 H1013

52. Combining salat while on a journey BUKHARI K18 B13 H1107

53. Salat lying on the side BUKHARI K18 B19 H1117

54. If salat starts lying down and the condition improves he stands up BUKHARI K18 B20 H1118

55. Leaving qiyam al layl by the patient BUKHARI K19 B4 H1124

56. Salat sitting down for the patient BUKHARI K18 B13 H1107

57. Salat by gestures for the sick BUKHARI K18 B18 H1116

58. Offensiveness of extremes in ibadat BUKHARI K19 B18 H1150

59. Forgetting how much he has prayed BUKHARI K22

3.10 Janazah

60. Excellence of ihtisaab on death of a child BUKHARI K23 B6 H1248

61. Patience at the qabr BUKHARI K23 B7 H1252

62. Patience is at the first strike BUKHARI K23 B42 H1302

3.11 Zakat

63. Sadaqat for close relatives BUKHARI K23 B46 H1461

64. Sadaqat for the orphans BUKHARI K23 B49 H1465

65. Taking sadaqat from the rich and giving it to the poor BUKHARI K23 B65 H1496

3.12 Hajj

66. The menstruating woman can make up every rite except tawaaf BUKHARI K25 B81 H1650

67. Hijamah for the muhrim BUKHARI K28 B11 H1836

3.13 Saum

68. Saum for the bachelor afraid of mischief BUKHARI K30 B10 H1905

69. Delay of suhuur BUKHARI K30 B18 H1920

70. Hijanah and vomiting in Ramadhan BUKHARI K30 B32 H1938

71. The menstruating woman does not fast or offer salat BUKHARI K30 B41 H1951

72. Hastening iftaar BUKHARI K30 B45 H1957

73. Saum for children BUKHARI K30 B47 H1960

74. Wisaal BUKHARI K30 B48 H1975

75. Feeding the poor on behalf of an elderly who cannot fast BUKHARI K65 B25 H4505

3.14 Jihad

76. 7 types of martyrs BUKHARI K56 B30 H2829, H2830

77. Women treating the injured BUKHARI K56 B67 H2882

78. Women evacuating the injured and the dead BUKHARI K56 B68 H2883

79. Forbidding killing women and children BUKHARI K56 B14 H3015

80. Wound cauterization BUKHARI K56 B163 H3037

3.15 Toilet hygiene

81. Washing the 2 hands on waking up from sleep and before immersing them in a water vessel Bukhari KITAB AL WUDHU(4)B26 H162

82. Istinja with water Bukhari KITAB AL WUDHU(4)B15 H150

83. Prohibition of istinja with the left Bukhari KITAB AL WUDHU(4)B18 H153

84. Prohibition of touching the penis with the right hand when urinating Bukhari KITAB AL WUDHU(4)B19 H154

85. Prohibition of istinja with rawth Bukhari KITAB AL WUDHU(4)B21 H156

86. Washing urine with water Bukhari KITAB AL WUDHU(4)B58

87. Pouring water over urine BUKHARI KITAB AL WUDHU(4)B220

88. Urine of infants BUKHARI KITAB AL WUDHU(4)B63

3.17 Washing (ghusl)

89. Washing madhi Bukhari KITAAB AL GHUSL (5) B13

90. Drying hands after washing Bukhari KITAAB AL GHUSL (5) B18

91. Tasattur during ghusl Bukhari KITAAB AL GHUSL (5) B21

92. Washing if a woman has a wet dream Bukhari KITAAB AL GHUSL (5) B22

93. Washing after sexual intercourse Bukharu KITAAB AL GHUSL (5) B28

94. Wiping the hand after washing the farj in ghusl al janabat Bukhari KITAAB AL GHUSL (5) B8

95. Washing the hand in ghusl al janabat Bukhari KITAAB AL GHUSL (5) B9

3.18 Body hygiene

96. Washing menstrual blood from a cloth BUKHARI KITAB AL WUDHU(4)B67

97. Washing semen (mani) from a cloth BUKHARI KITAB AL WUDHU(4)B68

98. Siwaak at time of sleep BUKHARI KITAB AL WUDHU(4)B77

3.19 Foods

99. Eating with the right hand BUKHARI K70 B2 H5376

99. Eating what is next to you BUKHARI K70 B3 H5377

100. Prophet did not eat until he was told what the food was BUKHARI K70 B10 H5391

101.Believer eats from one stomach BUKHARI K70 B12 H5393

102.Do not eat muttaki BUKHARI K70 B14 H5398

103.If you eat thawm stay away from people BUKHARI K70 B50 H5452

104.Rinsing the mouth after eating BUKHARI K70 B52 H5454

105.If supper is presented BUKHARI K70 B59 H5462

3.20 Drink

106. Khamr is rijs of shaitan BUKHARI K65 B10 H4616

107.Khamr is what clouds the mind BUKHARI K74 B5 H5588

108.Rinsing the mouth after drinking fatty milk BUKHARI K74 B12 H5609

109.Covering vessels BUKHARI K74 B22 H5623

110.Do not drink from the mouth of the vessel BUKHARI K74 B23 H5625, BUKHARI K74 B24 H5627

111.Do not breathe into the vessel BUKHARI K74 B25 H5630

112.Two or three breaths for each drink BUKHARI K74 B26 H5631

3.21 Slaughter

113. Eating animals with nails BUKHARI K72 B29 H5530

107.Eating in dharurat BUKHARI K72 B38, Qur’an 2:172-173, Maida:3, an’am:118-119 & 145, nahal:114-115

3.22 Sleep

115. Hibernation of the people of the cave BUKHARI K60 B54 H3465

3.23 Menstruation

116.Menstruating woman does not perform saum Bukhari Kitab al Haidh (K6) B7 H304

117.Menstruating woman does not repay (qadha) salat Bukhari Kitab al Haidh (K6) B21 H321

118.Woman with DUB does not leave salat Bukhari Kitab al Haidh (K6) B9 H306

119.Washing a cloth affected by menstrual blood Bukhari Kitab al Haidh (K6) B10 H308

120.Yellow discharge in non-menstrual days are not a problem Bukhari Kitab al Haidh (K6) B26 H326

3.24 Environment

121.Washing a vessel 7 times if a dog drinks from it Bukhari KITAB AL WUDHU(4)B? H172

107.Removing a mouse from ghee Bukhaari KITAB AL WUDHU(4)B71

122.Prohibition of urination in stagnant water Bukhaari KITAB AL WUDHU(4)B72

123.Killing dangerous animals BUKHARI K59 B16 H3314

124.Home safety measures at night BUKHARI K59 B16 H3316

125.Extinguishing lights at night BUKHARI K74 B22 H5623

4.0 LISTING OF BUKHARI HADITHS WITH MEDICAL IMPLICATIONS: AKHLAQ AL TIBB & ADAB AL TIBB (MEDICAL ETHICS AND MEDICAL ETIQUETTE)

4.1 Sick persons

125. Kafarat al mariidh BUKHARI K75 B1 H5640

126.Reward for severity of illness BUKHARI K75 B2 H5647

127.Kaffarat of sins from severity of illness BUKHARI K75 B3 H5648

128.Obligation to visit the sick BUKHARI K75 B4 H5649

129.Visiting the unconscious patient BUKHARI K75 B5 H5651

130.Jannat due to patience in sickness BUKHARI K75 B6 H5652

131.Women visiting sick men BUKHARI K75 B8 H5654

132.Visiting sick children BUKHARI K75 B9 H5655

133.Visiting sick Bedouins BUKHARI K75 B10 H5656

134.Visiting a sick polytheist BUKHARI K75 B11 H5657

135.Putting the hand on the sick person BUKHARI K75 B13 H5659

136.What is said when visiting the sick BUKHARI K75 B14 H5662

137.Refusing the patient’s request for a reason BUKHARI K75 B17 H5669

138.Dua for a sick child BUKHARI K75 B18 H5670

139.Prohibition of wishing for death BUKHARI K75 B19 H5671, 5673

140.Prohibition of dua for death BUKHARI K75 B19 H5672

141.Dua of a visitor for the sick BUKHARI K75 B20 H5675

142.Wish for death BUKHARI Kitab al Tamanni (K95) B6 H7233

4.2 Medicine

143. Every disease has a medicine BUKHARI K76 B1 H5678

143.Woman can treat a man BUKHARI K76 B2 H5679

144.Cure is in three: honey, cupping, and cauterization BUKHARI K76 B3 H5670, H5681

145.Treating the stomach with honey BUKHARI K76 B4 H5684

146.Treatment with milk of camels BUKHARI K76 B5 H5685

147.Treatment with urine of camels BUKHARI K76 B6 G5686

148.Treatment with habbat al sawuda BUKHARI K76 B7 H5687 & H5688

149.Talbiyah for psychological disease (sadness) BUKHARI K76 B8 H5689

150.Sa’uut BUKHARI K76 B9 H5691

151.Uud hindi BUKHARI K76 B10 H5693

152.Hijaam does not void saum BUKHARI K76 B12 H5695

153.Shaving hear because of annoyance BUKHARI K76 B16 H5703

154.Kohl for ramad BUKHARI K76 B18 H5706

155.Fleeing from leprosy BUKHARI K76 B19 H5707

156.… is cure for the eye BUKHARI K76 B30 H5708

157.Patient refusal of medicine BUKHARI K76 B21 H5713

158.Treating ‘udhrat using uud hindi BUKHARI K76 B23 H5715

159.Treatment of mabtuun with honey BUKHARI K76 B24 H5716

160.No ‘adwah BUKHARI K76 B25 H5717

161.Uud hindi for dhaat al janb BUKHARI K76 B26 H5718

162.Cauterization for dhaat al junb BUKHARI K76 B26 H5721

163.Kharq al hasiir to stop bleeding BUKHARI K76 B27 H5722

164.Tepid sponging for fever BUKHARI K76 B28 H5723, 5725, 5726

165.Do not leave or enter a country with plague BUKHARI K76 B30 H5728

166.Omar and the plague epidemic BUKHARI K76 B30 H5729

167.Plague is martyrdom BUKHARI K76 B30 H5733

168.Mabtuun is martyrdom BUKHARI K76 B30 H5733

169.Ruqy is with Qur’an and the mu’awadhatain BUKHARI K76 B32 H5735

170.Ruqy with fatihat BUKHARI K76 B33 H5736

171.Ruqy for ‘ayn BUKHARI K76 B35 H5738

172.Ruqy for snake bite and ‘aqrab bite BUKHARI K76 B37 H5741

173.Ruqy for ? BUKHARI K76 B38 H5742

174.Wiping the face during ruqy BUKHARI K76 B40 H5750

175.Woman does ruqy for a man BUKHARI K76 B41 H5751

176.Prohibition of tiirat BUKHARI K76 B43 H5745

177.The good word (faal) BUKHARI K76 B45 H5756

178.Prohibition of haamat BUKHARI K76 B45 H5757

179.Prohibition of kahanat BUKHARI K76 B46 H5712

180.Prohibition of sihr BUKHARI K76 B48 H5764

181.Sihr for rasul al lllah BUKHARI K76 B49 H5765

182.Bayaan can be suhr BUKHARI K76 B51 H5767

183.Ajwah for sihr BUKHARI K76 B52 H5768

184.Ajwah for poison BUKHARI K76 B52 H5768

185.The sick does not visit the healthy BUKHARI K76 B53 H5771

186.No adwah BUKHARI K76 B53 H5772, 5774, 5775, 5776

187.Poisoning of the prophet in Khaybar BUKHARI K76 B55 H5777

188.Prohibition of suicide with poison, knife, or starvation BUKHARI K76 B56 H5778

189.Hadith of the fly BUKHARI K76 B58 H5782

5.0 LISTING OF BUKHARI HADITHS WITH MEDICAL IMPLICATIONS: COMMUNITY ISSUES (JAMA’AT)

5.1 Gender issues

190. Deficient aql and diin of a woman BUKHARI K6 B7

190.Woman does not travel more than 3 days without a mahram BUKHARI K18 B1 H1094

5.2 Clothes

191. Allowing silk for body itch BUKHARI K77 B29 H5839

192.Expelling transsexuals (dress and appearance of the opposite gender) BUKHARI K77 B62 H5886

193.Cutting the moustache BUKHARI K77 B63 H5889

194.Cutting nails BUKHARI K77 B64 H5890

195.Circumcision and pulling axillary hair BUKHARI K77 B63 H5889

196.Leaving the beard alone BUKHARI K77 B65 H5893

197.Dyeing hair BUKHARI K77 B67 H5899

198.Perfume BUKHARI K77 B74 H5923

199.Combing hair BUKHARI K77 B75 H5924

200.Mouth odor of fasting person (bacterial action) BUKHARI K77 B78 H5927

201.Forbidden cosmesis (mutafallijaat, washm, names) BUKHARI K77 B72 H5931

202.Attaching false hair BUKHARI K77 B83 H5933

203.Prohibition of washm BUKHARI K77 B83 H5934

204.Prohibition of mutanamisaat BUKHARI K77 B84 H5939

205.Prohibition of joining false hair BUKHARI K77 B85 H5941

206.Prohibition of washm BUKHARI K77 B87 H5946

5.3 Entertainment

206. Entertainment on eidain BUKHARI K13 B1 H948

5.4 Etiquette (adab) for mental health

207. Company of the 2 parents BUKHARI K78 B1 H5971

208.Abusing the parents BUKHARI K78 B4 H5973

209.Mistreating parents is one of the major sins BUKHARI K78 B6 H5975

210.Relations with a polytheist relative BUKHARI K78 B7 H5978, BUKHARI K78 B9 H5981

211.Excellence of kindred relations BUKHARI K78 B10 H5983

212.Playing with children BUKHARI K78 B17 H5993

213.Kindness and kissing for a child BUKHARI K78 B18 H5998

214.Killing a child for fear of sharing meals with him BUKHARI K78 B20 H6001

215.Child in hijr BUKHARI K78 B21 H6002

216.Child on the thigh BUKHARI K78 B22 H6003

217.Excellence of one who takes care of an orphan BUKHARI K78 B24 H6005

218.Working to help the widows BUKHARI K78 B25 H6006

219.Working to help a miskiin BUKHARI K78 B26 H6007

220.Wasiyat bi al jaar BUKHARI K78 B28 H6014

221.Nahyu idaau al jaar BUKHARI K78 B31 H6018

222.The good word BUKHARI K78 B34 H6023

223.Rifq BUKHARI K78 B35 H6024

224.Cooperation among believers BUKHARI K78 B36 H6026

225.Love for Allah BUKHARI K78 B42 H6041

226.Prohibition of abusing BUKHARI K78 B44 H6044

227.Prohibition of backbiting BUKHARI K78 B46 H6052

228.Prohibition of rumor mongering BUKHARI K78 B49 H6055

229.Prohibition of jealousy and turning away BUKHARI K78 B57 H6064, 6065

230.Prohibition of dhann BUKHARI K78 B58 H6066

231.Covering up own sins BUKHARI K78 B60 H6069

232.Kibr BUKHARI K78 B61 H6071

233.Forbidding hijra for more than 3 days BUKHARI K78 B62 H6076, 6077

234.Smiling and laughing BUKHARI K78 B68 H6089

235.Telling the truth in speaking BUKHARI K78 B69 H6094

236.Patience at annotance BUKHARI K78 B71 H6100

237.Warning about anger BUKHARI K78 B76 H6114, 6116

238.Hayaa BUKHARI K78 B78 H6120

239.Make ease and nor difficulty BUKHARI K78 B80 H6125

240.Inbisaat bi al naas BUKHARI K78 B81 H6129

241.Care a believer is not bitten in a hole twice BUKHARI K78 B83 H6133

242.Honoring the guest BUKHARI K78 B85 H6135

243.Honoring the elder BUKHARI K78 B79 H6144

244.Poetry may have wisdom BUKHARI K78 B90 H6145

245.Prohibition of too much poetry BUKHARI K78 B91 H6154

246.A person is with those he loves BUKHARI K78 B96 H6168

247.Saying welcome marhabat BUKHARI K78 B98 H6176

248.Changing a bad name to a good one BUKHARI K78 B107 H6190

249.Tashmiit al aatis BUKHARI K78 B124 H6222

250.Yawning BUKHARI K78 B128 H6226

5.6 Seeking permission to enter (social etiquette for mental health)

251. The right of the way BUKHARI K79 B2 H6229

251.Spreading salam BUKHARI K79 B8 H6235

252.Shaking hands BUKHARI K79 B27 H6236

253.Hugging BUKHARI K79 B29 H6266

254.Do not make someone stand up from his place BUKHARI K79 B31 H6269

255.Making way in a majlis BUKHARI K79 B32 H6270

256.Prohibition of secret talks BUKHARI K79 B45 H6288

257.Keeping secrets BUKHARI K79 B46 H6289

258.Prohibition of leaving fire lighted in the house at time of sleeping BUKHARI K79 B49 H6293

259.Closing doors at night BUKHARI K79 B50 H6296

6.0 LISTING OF BUKHARI HADITHS WITH MEDICAL IMPLICATIONS: SOCIAL TRANSACTIONS (MU’MALAAT)

6.1 Nikaah

260. Encouraging marriage BUKHARI K67 B1 H5063

261.One capable should marry BUKHARI K67 B2 H5065

262.Saum for who cannot marry BUKHARI K67 B3 H5066

263.Offensiveness of tabattul and orchidectomy BUKHARI K67 B8 H5073

264.Compatibility in religion / 4 reasons for marrying a woman BUKHARI K67 B16 H5090

265.Looking before marriage BUKHARI K67 B36 H5126

266.Conditions in marriage BUKHARI K67 B54 H5152

267.Coitus interruptus BUKHARI K67 B96 H5207, H5208, H5209

268.Seeking a child BUKHARI K67 B122 H5245

6.2 Divorce

269. Counting the iddat BUKHARI K68 B1 H5251

269.No divorce for the menstruating woman BUKHARI K68 B3 H5258

270.Divorce by the intoxicated and the mad BUKHARI K68 B11

6.3 Nafaqat

271. Obligation to make nafaqat for the family BUKHARI K69 B2 H5356

272.Family food security for 1 year BUKHARI K69 B3 H5357

6.4 Sales

273. Prohibition of trade in intoxicants BUKHARI K34 B105 H226

274.Payment for hijaamat BUKHARI K34 B39 H2103

6.5 Ijarah

275. Hiring a righteous person BUKHARI K37 B1 H2260

276.Hiring a polytheist in dharurat BUKHARI K37 B3 H2263

277.Payment for ruqya BUKHARI K37 B16 H2276

278.Payment for hujamah BUKHARI K37 B18 H2278-2280

279.Prohibition of prostitution BUKHARI K37 B20 H2283

6.6 Wikaala

280. Agent & self interest? BUKHARI K40 B4 H2304

6.7 Musaaqaat

281. Othman gifted a well BUKHARI K42 B2 H2351

282.Sin of forbidding water BUKHARI K42 B6 H2358

283.No pasturage except pasturage of Alllah BUKHARI K42 B12 H2370

6.8 Borrowing and paying debts

284. Wasting wealth BUKHARI K43 B19 H2409

6.9 Disputes

285.Voiding manumission by the safiih (incompetent) BUKHARI K44 B2 H2414-2415

286.Paternity disputes BUKHARI K44 B6 H2421

6.10 Madhaalim

287. Removing an annoyance from the road BUKHARI K46 B24

288.Throwing …. And what annoys people on the road BUKHARI K46 B28 H2472

6.11 Manumission

288. Waswasat in work BUKHARI K49 B6 H2528

289.Work is according to niyyat BUKHARI K49 B6 H2529

6.12 Evidence

290. Evidence on lineage and foster breastfeeding BUKHARI K52 B7 H2644-2647

291.Evidence of the raa’I BUKHARI K52 B11 H2655, H2657

292.Maturity of children and their witness BUKHARI K52 B18 H2664

6.13 Reconciliation

293. A reconciliator is not a liar/partial disclosure BUKHARI K53 B2 H2692

6.14 Punishments

294. Ghurrat for feticide BUKHARI K88 B25 H6904

6.15 Conditions

295. Conditions for akad nikaah BUKHARI K54 B6 H2721

296.Conditions in nikaah BUKHARI K54 B6 H2723

297.Conditions in loans BUKHARI K54 B16 H2734

298.Conditions against kitaab al llaah are not valid BUKHARI K54 B17 H2735

299.Conditions in waqaf BUKHARI K54 B19 H2737

6.16 Wills

300. Writing a will BUKHARI K55 B1 H2738

301.Leaving the inheritors rich BUKHARI K55 B2 H2742

302.Willing one third BUKHARI K55 B3 H2743

303.Will of the patient by gestures or by nodding BUKHARI K55 B5 H2746

304.No will for an inheritor BUKHARI K55 B6 H2747

305.Sadaqat at the time of death BUKHARI K55 B7 H2748

306.A patient admission of debt BUKHARI K55 B8 Surat al nisa:11

307.Waqf and will for relatives BUKHARI K55 B10 H2752

308.Sadaqat on behalf of one who dies suddenly BUKHARI K55 B19 H2760

309.Fulfilling nadhar of those who die suddenly BUKHARI K55 B19 H2761

310.Having witnesses on waqf and sadaqat BUKHARI K55 B20 H2762

311.Embezzling the wealth of the orphan BUKHARI K55 B24 H2766

312.Writing the waqf BUKHARI K55 B29 H2772

7.0 LISTING OF BUKHARI HADITHS WITH MEDICAL IMPLICATIONS: PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL

7.1 Dua

313. A lot of istighfar BUKHARI K80 B3 H6307

314.Taubat BUKHARI K80 B4 H6309

315.Allah will answer if person is not in haste BUKHARI K80 B22 H6340

316.Dua when in karub BUKHARI K80 B27 H6345

317.Ta’awudh min jahd al bala BUKHARI K80 B28 H6347

318.Prohibition of dua for death BUKHARI K80 B30 H6349

319.Dua for children BUKHARI K80 B31 H6355

320.Ta’awudh from hamm and huzn BUKHARI K80 B36 H6363

321.Ta’wwudh from failure and laziness BUKHARI K80 B39 H6367

322.Ta’awudh from haram BUKHARI K80 B39 H6367

323.Ta’awudh from ardhal al ‘umr BUKHARI K80 B43 H6371

7.2 Riqaaq

324. The ni’imat of health and faraagh BUKHARI K81 B1 H6412

325.Long hope and nearness of ajal BUKHARI K81 B4 H6418

326.Love of long life BUKHARI K81 B5 H6421

327.Increased obesity in later times BUKHARI K81 B7 H6428

328.Fitnat of wealth BUKHARI K81 B10 H6438

329.Wealth is wealth of the nafs BUKHARI K81 B15 H6446

330.Keeping the tongue and the faraj BUKHARI K81 B23 H6474

331.Decreasing talking BUKHARI K81 B23 H6475

332.People are safe from the toungue and hands of a Muslim BUKHARI K81 B26 H6484

333.Shahwat and fire BUKHARI K81 B28 H6487

334.Look below and not above BUKHARI K81 B30 H6490

335.Loneliness is better than mixing with evil people BUKHARI K81 B34 H6495

336.Riyaa BUKHARI K81 B36 H6499

337.Love meeting Allah BUKHARI K81 B41 H6508

338.Sakaraat al mawt BUKHARI K81 B42 H6510

8.0 LISTING OF BUKHARI HADITHS WITH MEDICAL IMPLICATIONS: PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL

8.1 Embryological development

339. The hadith of 40 days BUKHARI K60 B1 H3332

340.Stages from nutfat onwards…sex determination BUKHARI K60 B1 H3333

341.Stages of embryological development and sex determination Bukhari K6 B18 H318

342.Embryology BUKHARI K82 B1 H6594, H6595

343.Ajal is fixed intrauterine BUKHARI K82 B1 H6595

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. November, 2007