1.0 BED-SIDE VISITS
The physician-patient interaction is both professional and social. The bedside visit fulfills
the brotherhood obligation of visiting the sick. The human relation with the patient comes before the professional technical
relation. It is reassurance, psychological and social support, show of fraternal love, and sharing. A psychologically satisfied
patient is more likely to be cooperative in taking medication, eating, or drinking. The following are recommended during a
visit: greeting the patient, prayer for the patient, good encouraging words, asking about the patient’s feelings, doing
good/pleasing things for the patient, making the patient happy, and encouraging
the patient to be patient, discouraging the patient from wishing for death, advice for the patient, and reminding the patient
about religious obligations. Caregivers should seek permission before touching or examining the patient. They should not engage
in secret conversations that do not involve the patient.
2.0 ETIQUETTE OF THE PATIENT
The patient should express gratitude to the caregivers even
if there is no physical improvement. Patient complaints should be for drawing attention to problems that need attention and
not criticizing caregivers. The patient should be patient because there are blessings for those who surrender and persevere.
The patient should make pray for himself, caregivers, visitors, and others. The patient
should try his best to eat and drink although the appetite may be low. The caregivers can not force the patient to eat. They
should try their best to provide the favorite food of the patient. The believing
patient should never lose hope. He should never wish for death. The patient should try his best to avoid anger directed
at himself or others. Getting angry is a sign of losing patience.
3.0 ETIQUETTE OF THE CARE-GIVER
The caregiver should respect the rights of the patient regarding advance directives on
treatment, privacy, access to information, informed consent, and protection from nosocomial infections. Caregivers must be
clean and dress appropriately to look serious, organized and disciplined. They must be cheerful, lenient, merciful, and kind.
They must enjoin the good, have good thoughts about the patients and avoid evil or obscene words. They must observe the rules
of lowering the gaze and must avoid being alone with patients of the opposite gender. Caregivers must have an attitude of
humbleness. They cannot be emotionally-detached in the mistaken impression that they are being professional. They must be
loving and empathetic and show mercifulness but the emotional involvement must not go to the extreme of being so engrossed
that rational professional judgment is impaired. They must make prayer for the patients. They must seek permission when approaching or examining patients. Medical care must be professional, competent, and considerate. Medical
decisions should consider the balance of benefits and risks. The general position of the Law is to give priority to minimizing
risk over maximizing benefit. Any procedures carried out must be explained very well to the patient in advance. The caregiver
must never promise cure or improvement. The caregivers must listen to the felt needs and problems of the patients. They should
ask about both medical and non-medical problems. Supportive care such as nursing care, cleanliness, physical comfort, nutrition,
treatment of fever and pain are as important as the medical procedures themselves and are all what can be offered in terminal
illness. Caregivers must reassure the patients not to give up hope. Measures should be taken to prevent nosocomial infections.
4.0 ETIQUETTE OF UNCIOVERING THE NAKEDNESS OF PATIENTS
Both the caregiver and patient must cover nakedness as much as possible. However, the
rules of covering are relaxed because of the necessity of medical examination and treatment. The benefit of medical care takes
precedence over preventing the harm inherent in uncovering nakedness. When it is necessary to uncover nakedness no more than
what is absolutely necessary should be uncovered. To avoid any doubts, patients of the opposite gender should be examined
and treated in the presence of others of the same gender. The caregivers should be sensitive to the psychological stress of
patients, including children, when their nakedness is uncovered. They should seek permission from the patient before they
uncover their nakedness. Caregivers who have never been patients may not realize the depth of the embarrassment of being naked
in front of others.
5.0 ETIQUETTE OF INTERACTION BETWEEN DIFFERENT
Medical co-education involves intense interaction between genders: Teacher-student,
student-student, and teacher-teacher. Interacting with colleagues of the opposite gender raises special problems: norms
of dress, speaking, and general conduct; class-room etiquette; social interaction; laboratory experiments on fellow students;
clinical skills laboratory and learning clinical skills by examining other students; and standing together in a crowded operation
theatre. Specific regulations should be in place dealing with all these issues.
Legal guidelines on interaction with patients of the opposite gender should be followed.
Taking history, physical examination, diagnostic procedures, and operations should preferably be by a physician of the same
gender. In conditions of necessity a physician of the opposite gender can be used and may have to look at the nakedness or
touch a patient. The conditions that are accepted as constituting necessity are: skills and availability.
6.0 DEALING WITH THE FAMILY
Visits by the family fulfill the social obligation of joining the kindred
and should be encouraged. The families are honored guests of the hospital with all the rights of a guest. The caregiver must provide psychological support to family because they are also victims of the illness because they
anxious and worried. They need reassurance about the condition of the patient within the limits allowed by the rules of confidentiality.
The family can be involved in some aspects of supportive care so that they feel they are helping and are involved. They should
however not be allowed to interrupt medical procedures. Caregivers must be careful not to be involved in family conflicts
that arise from the stresses of illness.