Presented by Professor Dr Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. MB ChB (MUK), MPH (Harvard), DrPH (Harvard) Professor of Epidemiology and
Islamic Medicine at Universiti Brunei Darussalam at the Annual Health Islamic Conference held at Faculty of Medicine University
of Indonesia Jl Salemba Raya No 6 Jakarta Pusat held on 3-5 February 2006 and organized jointly by Forum Ukhuwah Lembaga Dakwah
Facultas Kedoketran se-Indonesia and Forum Studi Islam Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PROPHETIC MEDICINE
Tibb Nabawi refers to words and actions of the Prophet with a bearing on disease, treatment of disease, and care
of patients. Thus also included are words of the prophet on medical matters, medical treatment practiced by others on the
prophet, medical treatments practised by the prophet on himself and others, medical treatments observed by the prophet with
no objections, medical procedures that the prophet heard or knew about and did not prohibit, or medical practices that were
so common that the prophet could not have failed to know about them.The prophet's
medical teachings were specific for place, population, and time. They however also included general guidance on physical and
mental health that are applicable to all places, all times, and all circumstances. Tibb
nabawi is not one monolithic or systematic medical system as some people would want us to believe. It is varied and circumstantial.
It covers preventive medicine, curative medicine, mental well-being, spiritual cures or ruqyah,
medical and surgical treatments. It integrates mind and body, matter and spirit.
Search for cures: The Prophet enunciated a basic principle in medicine that for every disease there is cure (ma anzala allahu daa; illa anzala lahu shifa'a- Kitaab al Tibb, al Bukhari).This is an impetus for us to look for remedies. Thus the prophetic medical tradition does not stop at only the medical
teachings of the prophet but goes beyond to encourage humans to search and experiment with new treatment modalities. This
implies among other things that prophetic medicine is not static. There is room for growth and even breaking new ground. Al
Habba al Saudaa was recommended by the Prophet as a general treatment and has been studied extensively. Another implications
of this hadith is that seeking treatment does not contradict qadar (pre-determination).
Thus both the disease and its treatment are part of qadar.
SOURCES OF TIBB NABAWI
Pre-islamic arab medicine: Tibb nabawi
has several sources: revelation, wahy; empirical experience of the prophet, folk
medicine of that time in the Arabian
peninsula, and it is possible that some medical knowledge of other communities could have been known in Makka
or Madina at the time of the prophet.
The Qur’an: a source of tibb nabawi: Tibb Qur’ani
refers to verses of the Qur’an that relate to diseases of the body and the mind and their treatment.The Qur’an talks about physical ill health and mental ill-health/diseases of the heart. Ultimate cure of diseases is from Allah. The Qur’an itself is a cure. It contains supplications for good health as well as guidances on specific therapy
such as honey, eating only hood halal food avoiding
unhealthy haram food and not in excessive amounts. The Qur’an has many medical teachings that could be called Tibb Qur’ani.Tibb Qur’ani is more appropriately related to general principles of a balanced
life style that the Qur’an enunciated rather that specifics of scientific explanations for Qu’ranic verses related
to medicine (such as contagion, adwah; alcohol, creation, and saum) or establishing
medicinal value of plants (zaitoon, tiin, dates, milk, and fruits) mentioned in
the Qur’an as food but not as cures. Such a approach usually lacksscientific
rigor or accuracy and have creates more confusion than clarity.It can also mislead
some people into thinking that they know the full reasons behind a certain Qur’anic injunction based on scientific medical
evidence. Unless clearly stated in the Qur’an itself or by authentic Sunnah,
the reasons behind Qur’anic injunctions are unknowable to us with certainty.All we can do is research and make Ijtihad, we could be right or wrong.
We must have the humility to realize that we may not reach the whole truth and the scientific explanations that we propose
may be wrong or may be only part of the explanation. The Qur’an is not a textbook of medicine but a book of moral guidance.
It contains basic information and guidance on medical matters leaving the room open for humans to undertake research and fill
in the details. Confining medicine to only the teachings in the Qur’an would make it very limited because the Qur’an
is very selective in coverage of details leaving the field open to humans to observe, search for an understand Allah’s
signs on earth. Such constraints on the concept of Islamic Medicine would also discourage further research and scientific
HADITH AS A SOURCE OF TIBB NABAWI
The following were the forms of prophet’s medical teachings: words of the prophet on medical
matters, medical treatment practiced by others on the prophet, medical treatments observed the prophet with no objections,
medical procedures that the prophet heard/knew about and did not prohibit. The total number of hadiths on medicine is about
300; many do not reach the degree of hasan. Bukhari in his Sahih narrated 129 hadiths directly related to medicine.
He devoted two books to medicine: kitaab al tibb and kitaab al mardha There are many other hadiths in Bukhari indirectly related to medicine. Other books of hadith
also narrate more hadiths with relevance to medicine. Scholars have collected these hadiths together and some have related
them to available medical knowledge.
Hadiths on physical remedies are either wahy or based on empirical experience. In most cases we cannot
distinguish between the two sources unless there is a specific indication that wahy is involved such as in the hadith of using
honey in treating an abdominal ailment of a brother of a companion. Thus hadiths that are not specifically wahy are not binding, ghair mulzimat. However
all hadiths on spiritual cures of disease are wahy and are binding, mulzimat.
Many books have been written about tibb al nabawi down the centuries. Books with the title al Tibb
al Nabawi were written by Ibn al Qayyim al Jawziyyat (d. 751H / 1350 M), al Hafidh Abu Abd al llaah Shams al Ddiin Muhammad
bin Ahmad al Dhahabi (d. 748H), Abu al Qasim al Husain bin Muhammad bin Habiib al Naisapuuri (d. 206H), Abu al Sunni Abu Bakar
Ahmad bin Muhammad al Dainawiri (d. 364H), Abu Nu’aim Ahmad bin Abd al llaah al Asfahani (d. 430H), Abu al ‘Abbaas
Ja’afar bin al Mu’utazz al Mustansiri (d. 433H), Dhia al Ddiin Muhammad bin ‘Abd al Waahid al Maqdasi (d.
643H), Shams al Ddiin Abu Abd al llaah Muhammad bin Abi al Fath al Ba’ali (d. 709H), Abu Abd al llaah Muhammad bin Yusuf
al Sanuusi (d. 895H), Abu al Hasan Nur al ddiin Ali Bin Muhammad al Jazaar al Masri (d. 914H), Qaysuufi Zaadet Muhammad Badr
al Ddiin (d. 1020H), Abd al Waziir al Abhari. Jamaal al Ddiin Daud,
Mukhtasar al tibb al nabawi was written by Jalaluddin al Suyuti. Al Ahkaam al Nabawiyyat fi al sina’at
an tibiyyat was written by the physician ‘Ali bin Tarkhaan. Kitaab al tibb fi al hadiith by Abu ‘Ubaid bin al
Hasan al Harraani (d. 369H). Al Ahkaam al Nabawiyyah fi al sina’at al tibiyyat by Ali bin Abd al Karim al Hamawi (d.
720H). Al Rahmat fi al Tibb wa al Hikmat by Mahdi bin Ali al Sabiiri (d. 815H), al Sayr al Qawi fi al Tibb al Nabawi by Muhammad
bin And al Rahman al Sakhaawi (d. 902H), Al Manhaj al Sawi a al Manhal al rawi fi al Tibb al Nabawi by Jalal al Ddiin Abd
al Rahman bin Abu Bakar al Suyuti (d.911H). Al Rahmat fi al Tibb wa al Hikmat by Jalal al Ddiin Abd al Rahman bin Abu Bakar
al Suyuti (d.911H). Rawdh al Insan fi Tadaabiir Sihhat al Abdaan by Khair al Ddiin Khidhr bin Mahmud al ‘Atuufi al Murzaifuuni
(d. 948H). Al Masaabih al Sunniyyat fi Tibb Khair al Bariyyat by Shihaab al Ddiin Abu al ‘Abbaas Ahmad bin Ahmad bin
Salamah al Qalyuubi (d. 1069H). Sihhat Aabaad by Othman Zadeh Taa ib Ahmad (d. 839H). Mukhtasar al Tibb al Nabawi by Mur’ish
ZadehQudduus Ahmad Affendi (d. 1265H).
NEED FOR NEW BOOKS ON TIBB NABAWI
In his book, A Tibb al Nabawi, Imaam Ibn al Qayim al Jawziyat
mentions many medical conditions for which the Prophet provided guidance. He interpreted the hadiths using the available medical
knowledge of his day. This book needs rewriting and it will look very different if written interpreting the prophetic traditions
using today's medical knowledge. With modern medical knowledge we can identify more hadiths with relevance to medicine than
was possible in the past.
C. CLASSIFICATION OF TIBB
PREVENTIVE TIBB NABAWI
The classification of traditions relating to medicine depends on the state of knowledge and changes
with time and place. Jalaluddin al Suyuti published a book on tibb nabawi and divided
medicine into 3 types: traditional, spiritual and preventive. Most of tibb nabawi
is preventive medicine which is a very advanced concept given the level of scientific knowledge at the prophet's time and
certainly must have been divinely inspired. Al Suyuti (1994) listed preventive medical measures such as food and exercise.
Other preventive measures taught in hadith include: quarantine for epidemics, hijr
sihhi, forbidding urination in stagnant water, bawl fi mai raqid, use of tooth
stick, siwaak, precautions in the house at night: fire & pests, leaving a country
because of its water and climate, marriage and mental health, marriage and sexual health, dietary control to avoid excesses, cleanliness and avoiding filth. Recitation of the Qur’an has beneficial physiological
SPIRITUAL TIBB NABAWI
Study of tibb nabawi reveals that there are spiritual aspects
of healing and recovery. Prayer, dua, recitation of the Qur’an, and remembrance
of Allah play a central role. Psychosomatic diseases could respond to spiritual approaches. The use of ruqyat(surat
al fatiha, al mu’awadhatain) falls between physical curative and spiritual. The curative part of ruqyat can be understood in modern terms in the way the psyche can modulate immune mechanisms that protect against
CURATIVE TIBB NABAWI
Ibn Qayim al Jawziyat listed many diseases with their recommended treatments from tibb nabawi. Diseases
in tibb nabawi treatable by natural remedies: fever, humma; bowel movements, istitlaq al batan; dropsy, istisqa; wounds, jarh; epilepsy, sar’a;
sciatica, ‘irq al nisa; temperaments, tabau’;
skin itch, hakk al jism; pleurisy, dhaat
al janb; headache and hemicrania, sidau
and shaqiiqat; inflammation of the throat, ‘adhrat; enlargement of the heart, al maf’uud; ophthalmia, al ramad; catalepsy, khudran al kulli; pimples, bathrat; skin eruptions, awraam; food
poisoning, sum; witchcraft, sihr; and head lice. He also mentioned other diseases like: plague, leprosy, eye diseases, throat and tonsils,
diarrhea, abdominal disease, fever, plague, snake bite, scorpion bite, food contamination by a fly, headache, nose bleeds,
teeth, cough, dropsy, sprain, fracture, bite by rabid dog, and the evil eye. The medical treatments mentioned were honey,
al 'asal; cold water for fever, al mau al
barid; diet, ghadha; milk, al laban; camel milk; camel urine. The
black seed, al habba al sauda, was
especially emphasised. The surgical treatments mentioned were: cupping, al hijaam;
cauterization, al kayy; venesection with cauterization, qatiu al uruuq
wa al kayy.
D. APPLICATION OT TIBB NABAWI TODAY
There are 3 aspects that we have to deal with regarding modern application of tibb nabawi. (a) is tibb nabawi part of the sharia? (b) what is the scope of tibb nabawi? (b) spatio-temporal
changes (c) empirical research on tibb nabawi.
TIBB NABAWI AS PART OF THE SHARI’AT:
A correct answer to this question requires clarifying the very concept of shariat. The regulations about salat, menstruation, and toilet hygiene
are part of the shariat rules that are immutable and there is no dispute about
them. There are other regulations about the government, ahkam sultaniyat, that
are part of the shariat but that change with circumstances. We can therefore distinguish
two parts of the shariat: (a) fixed and immutable and applicable to all places
and times and (b) fixed general principles whose details of application change with place and time. If we take the meaning
of shariat in (b) above we can conclude that prophetic medicine is part of Islamic
shariat that can change and grow using ijtihad
and empirical research to apply general shariat principles to changing circumstances.
SCOPE OF TIBB NABAWI
Tibb Nabawi as reported to us did not cover
every conceivable disease at the time of the Prophet neither can it cover all ailments today or in the future in various parts
of the world.This is easy to understand from the context that although the Prophet
practiced medicine, his mission was not medicine and he was not a full-time physician.The hadiths of the Prophet should not be looked at as a textbook of medicine.They should be used for the diseases that they dealth with.The proper
way to get additional medical knowledge is through research and looking for signs of Allah in the universe.
Whatever the Prophet said or did was valid and must be followed because he never uttered any untruth
even when joking. The ijtihad of the prophet even in worldly matters was protected,
ma'suum. The Qur'an and hadith have records of divine intervention to comment on
the prophet's ijtihad on worldy matters such his advice on some aspects of agriculture
that he later withdrew. Thus the record of authentic hadith that we have is valid whether in 'aqidat or worldly matters.The attempt to distinguish between the
medical teachings of the prophet-messenger and as a human living in Arabia at a particular
historical epoch is not easy and is of no practical significance.The question
is whether all or some of the tibb nabawi should be used today.If the diagnosis of a disease and all the circumstances surrounding it are exactly like those at the time
of the Prophet, then we have no hesitation in sayingtibb nabawi should be used. In actual practice it is difficult to ascertain that the conditions are
the same.Changes in disease pathology, changes in thegenetic pool of the patients, changes in the genetic pool of the medicinal plants, weather and climatic
conditions are among many variables that may make a particular remedy recommended by the Prophet not appropriate for a medical
condition today. The circumstances of time and place have changed. Indiscriminate use of the historical remedies could be
using the right drug for the wrong disease. There is even a more serious linguistic problem. The meaning of words has changed.
What was called fever in the 1st century AH may not be the same as the meaning of the same world today. Even medicinal
plants like the black seed may not be exactly the same plant. We can therefore conclude that the teachings of tibb nabawi can only be a foundation to guide and encourage scientific research for remedies that are suitable
for our times.
EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ON TIBB NABAWI:
There is a lot of scientific interest in prophetic teachings on medicine. In Egypt
for example many institutions are involved in research on traditional remedies: universities, the NationalResearchCenter,
the Desert Institute, and the Horticultural Department of the Ministry of Agriculture. Many medicinal plants including the
black seed have been investigated extensively and have been commercialised. The black seed (nigella sativa)is
an example of a prophetic remedy that has been studied extensively by both Muslims and non-Muslims. Animal research has shown
that the black seed is a potent anti-hypertensive and respiratory stimulant. It was shown to act against bacterial infection in mice. Al-Awadi et al (1991) studied the effect of a plant mixture including black seed on liver gluconeogenesis in rats with induced
diabetes. Salomi et al (1991) studied the inhibitory effects of the black seed on chemical carcinogenesis in rats. Nair et al (1991) studied the modulatory effect of the black seed on toxicity in rats induced by a cis-platinum, a cancer
treatment drug. Keshri et al (1995) studied the post-coital contraceptive effects of the black seed in rats. El-Dakhakhny (1965) studied the pharmacological properties of the black seed. Toppozada et al (1965) studied the antibacterial
properties of the black seed with clinical applications. El-Fattary (1975) isolated and described the anti-bacterial principles from the black seed. Chakravarty (1993) studied the inhibition of histamine release from mast cells by the black seed. Salomi et al (1992) studied the anti-tumor activity of the black seed. Human studies of the black seed have also been undertaken. Akhtar et al (1991) studied the effect of the black seed on nematode
worm infection in children. Haq et al (1995) studied the effect of the black seed on human lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leucocyte phagocytic activity. Laboratory studies provided scientific support for the traditional use of the black seed and its derived products as a treatment
for rheumatism and related inflammatory diseases. The study of the black seed as a medicine has even extended to its side effects since no medicine however useful is free
from side effects. Steinmann et al (1997) recorded occurrence of contact dermatitis after topical use of the black seed. Tennekoon et al. (1991) studied the possible hepato-toxicity of the black seed. Dr Ahmad El Kadhi (1986) identified immune enhancing capability of the black seed, garlic, and bee honey and started using
them in the treatment of advanced cancer.
E. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE CHALLENGES
From the survey above we can conclude
that tibb nabawi is an authentic and valid medical system. The general principles of this system are applicable at all times
and all places. The specific remedies taught by the Prophet (PBUH) are valid and useful. They however can not be used today
withiut undertaking further empirical research