Definition, classification, and uses of various rates
and proportions: vital, demographic, and morbidity
- Crude rates, specific rates, and standardized/adjusted rates.
- Population pyramid: age and sex-structure of different populations
Words and Terms
Health status indicators
Population, life tables
Rate, birth rate
Rate, crude rate
Rate, death rate
Rate, incidence rate
Rate, morbidity rate
Rate, mortality rate
Rate, pregnancy rate
Rate, specific rate
Rate, standardized rate
Rate, vital rate
Ratio, mortality ratio
Statistics, vital statistics
statistics (birth, death, marriage, and divorce) are from mandatory reporting.
They generate hypotheses for further investigation. They are analyzed in conjunction with ecologic or environmental data.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) is births per 100,000 of mid-year population per year.
Premature Birth rate is births at gestation age 28-38 weeks per 1000 live
births per year.
Low birth weight rate is births < 2500 g per 1000 live births per year.
Very low birth weight rate is births < 1500 g per 1000 live births per
Death Rate (CDR) is deaths in a year per 100,000 of mid-year population.
Mortality Ratio (PMR) is deaths of a specified kind as a proportion of the total
number of deaths.
ratio is the proportion of deaths from persons with a specified disease condition.
death rate is deaths >= 20 weeks per 1000 births (live births + still births)
death ratio is death =<20 weeks per 1000 1000 live births.
The abortion ratio is number of induced abortions per 1000 live births.
Mortality Rate (IMR), the most important indicator of community health, is deaths
at ages 0-12 months per 1000 live births per year.
Neonatal Mortality Rate is deaths within 1-28 days of birth per 1000 live births.
Neonatal Mortality Rate is deaths within 7 d of birth per 1000 live births per
Neonatal Mortality Rate is deaths at age 7-28 days of birth per 1000 live births
Neonatal Mortality Rate is deaths aged 28days -1 year of birth per 1000 live
births per year.
Mortality Rate is deaths aged > 28 weeks up to 7 days of birth per 1000 total
births (live births + stillbirths) per year.
mortality ratio is the number of fetal deaths >= 28 weeks + deaths within
one week of birth per 1000 live births.
Mortality Rate is deaths in pregnancy or within 42 days of delivery per 100,000
Marriage and divorce
rate is marriages in a year per 1000 of population.
rate is divorces in a year per 1000 or population or per 1000 marriages.
Sources of morbidity data are: Compulsory notification data, diseases registries
(cancer, substance abuse, birth defects, mental, congenital anomalies), Hospital discharge data, health service utilization
indices, health status indicators, Ministry reports, and Health, Nutrition and Morbidity Surveys. Both seasonal and cyclic
trends in disease rates must be studied. Data from medical records gives information on clinical, demographic, sociologic,
economic, administrative, and behavioral variables.
Infectious disease notification is required for (a) access to treatment (b) local
administrative action (c) epidemic control (d) research (e) aid diagnosis.
Examples of notifiable infectious diseases: (a) GIT infections: hepatitis, cholera
,typhoid & paratyphoid, amebic dysentery & bacillary dysentery (b) food poisoning (c) respiratory infections: tuberculosis,
diphtheria (d) parasites: malaria (e) sexually transmitted td: syphilis, HIV (f) viral: dengue
Examples of notifiable non-infectious diseases: (a) industrial accidents (b) non-industrial
accidents (road traffic accidents, sports and recreation accidents, home accidents)
Parameters of child growth and development: (a) Nutritional status: weight for height, BMI (b) Low birth weight rate (c) Mean length 0-1 year; mean height
1-18 years (d) Mean weight 0-1 year, 1-18 years (e) Chest Circumference (f) % immunized fully. School health: vision defects,
hearing defects, and dental defects. Food intake (Energy kcal/day, Protein g/day, Fat g/day, and Minerals (Ca, Fe)
Medical facilities & personnel: (a) # hospital beds per 10,000 population (b)
Hospital stay: patien-days/100,000 population (c) Bed occupancy: # bed-days per year (d) Admissions and discharges per 100,000
of population (e) # outpatient visits per year (f) Physicians, dentists, pharmacists, midwives, & nurses per 100,000 population
Hospital statistics: admissions, discharges, diagnoses, and procedures
Fertility Rate (TFR) is births per year 1000 women aged 15-44 in mid-year population.
Replacement level is TFR of 2.1.
reproductive rate is reproductive rate computed for girls only.
reproductive rate is the proportion of girls surviving to the reproductive age
out of 1000 live births.
Population is described by age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education,
pyramids reflect both birth and death rates. They display population structure
by age, and gender.
structure and future projection are determined by fertility, mortality,
and migration. Population pyramids have a narrow base and a wide top in industrial countries and a wide base and a narrow
top in non-industrialized ones. Atypical pyramids are due to war, genocide, and migration.
shift/transition is change in population structure with falling birth and death
transition is change in disease patterns as the population structure changes.
It follows demographic transition.
tables showing life expectancy at various ages are used for actuarial, pension,
& annuities computations; assessing health services; and computing Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL).
expectancy at birth, a sensitive indicator of the life of the community, indicates
current death rates. It is lower at birth than at age 1 year due to high IMR in the first year of life.